PollutionIntroductionWhat is pollution? We hear this name everywhere in ourdaily life. At school, college, newspapers, we also can see this word. So, whatis it? Pollution, also known as environmental problem.
It occurs whenpollutants destroying the natural and can brings the changes from our normallifestyles. The main elements or components of pollution is pollutants whichare generally waste materials of different forms. Pollution will disrupt ourecosystem and the balance in the environment. When the pollution has reach itspeak, it will harm the environment and lead to human illness.Pollution can be classified into many categories or indifferent forms. For example, air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution,radioactive pollution, heat or thermal pollution and even light pollution.
Thepoint and non-point sources is the two sources of occurrence of every form ofpollution. What is the different between these 2? The point sources are easy toidentify and easy to control. However, the non-point sources are hard tocontrol and difficult to monitor. Although environmental pollution can be caused bynatural events such as volcanic explosion as well as forest fires, yet the wordpollution usually implies to the pollution that created by human activities.
Pollution was not a serious problem if there is only individual or a smallgroup making the problems. However, as the number of human increased doing thesame thing, it has become a problem and it has remained one ever since. Howpollution occurs?Pollution can have many type of forms. Yet, none ofthese will brings goods to the human. In other word, pollution only will bringimpacts to human being.
Furthermore, not only human being will get affect fromthe pollution, even animal and plants will face the harm too.There are many type of pollution. For instance, airpollution, water pollution, noise pollution, light pollution, radiation and soon.
AirpollutionAir pollution is the release of pollutants into theair that are harm the human health, animal and plant. A physical, biological orchemical particle to the air can be defined as pollution. Pollution is happeningwhen the harmful gases, dust or smoke enter the air and it makes the humans,plants, animal to having difficulty to survive as the air becomes dirty.Air pollution can further be categorised in to 2.Visible air pollution and invisible air pollution. How does air pollutionhappen? 1.
Burning of fossil fuels. The combustion of fossilfuels like coal, petroleum and other factory will emit sulphur dioxide. Thefactory combustibles are also one of the major cause of air pollution. Thegases released from vehicles such as trucks, car, airplanes will also cause theair pollution. Carbon monoxide caused by improper or incomplete combustion canharm the human health.2.
Exhaust from factories and industries. Large amountof gases was released by manufacturing industries. For example, carbonmonoxide, hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and chemicals substance. These gaseswill destroy the quality of the air. Petroleum refineries can releasehydrocarbons and different chemicals that pollute the air 3. Mining operations. Mining is a process to extractthe mineral below the earth by using large equipment. Chemicals are released inthe air during the process causing air pollution.
Water pollutionWater pollution is defined as the toxic chemicals andbiological agents that presence in the water that over what is naturally foundin the water and may threat the health of human or the environment. Over two third of Earth’s surface is covered by water.Earth’s population continue to grow, water amount required for human isincreased. So they try to use the water as much as they can, but as they do it,the water quality getting poorer. Poor in water quality can be defined as waterpollution.
Water pollution can even classify into few types.Water pollution can be chemical water pollution, radiological water pollutionand biological water pollution.What cause water pollution happened?Too much of nutrient in the water. Sewage, is a typeof fertiliser, usually use in agriculture.
It is good if it is using inmoderate quantities as it can return important nutrients to the environment.For example, nitrogen and phosphorus. However, if the use is in high rate, thesewage will be flow into the water as the soil cannot cope with it. This isincrease the growth of algae in the water as the nutrient of the waterincreased. This is known as algal bloom. Algal bloom is harmful because it willremove the oxygen from the water due to eutrophication. Lack in oxygen willkills the life in water, leading to a ‘dead zone’.Radioactive waste.
As the radioactive name, it is verydangerous to our health. At high enough concentration it can kill us, while inlower concentrations it can cause cancers or even mutation occur. The biggestsources of radioactive pollution are the factories that reprocess waste fuelfrom nuclear power plants. They discharge radioactive waste water into the sea,and then the current of the ocean carry it to the whole world. Oil pollution. Over 70 % of oil pollution at sea comesfrom the ship and from the oil that people pour directly or indirectly to thedrains on land. Only 12 % of the oil that we usually think that huge black oil,covering the ocean come from tanker accidents.
1000 sea otters,34000 birds weredie due to the oil spill on the ocean. NoisepollutionThe propagation of noise with is harmful to the humanor animal life is defined as noise pollution. In other words, the noise thatexceed the normal levels that may lead to bad effects in humans or animals iscalled the noise pollution. Sound levels less than 70 dB will not cause problem tothe living organisms, depends on how long we expose to the sound, according tothe World Health Organization. It may be hazardous if we expose to constantnoise more than 85 dB more than 8 hours. Noise pollution can disturb normal activities forhuman and animal. For example, conversation, communication, sleeping and so on.
This pollution can come from many sources like the sound of the aircraft, theengine sound of the vehicles, the sound of construction equipment and others.Long-term exposure to traffic noise may lead to various disease or even lead todeath. Causesof noise pollutionOne of the factors that cause noise pollution isindustrialization. Big machines used by most of the industries can producelarge amount of noise.
Other from that, equipment such as generators,compressors, exhaust fans can produce big noise too. Therefore, you can see theworkers work in the factory might earing ear plugs to reduce the effect of thenoiseNext, the transportation we use can cause noisepollution too. Why do we say that? Theheavy noise produced by the vehicles on roads, aeroplanes flying over housescan let people difficult to bare to that. In a serious case, a normal personmay lose the ability to hearing due to the high noise.Construction activities, can also cause the pollution.Mining, construction of roads, bridges, building happening all around theworld.
The sound produce by the construction is too big, but we can’t reject itbecause we need more these accommodations to improve the life style to easierlevel. Effectof the noise pollution1. Hearing problems. As what we use to hear sound, themost suffer from the noise pollution is our ears. It can cause problems withinour body if our ears listen to any unwanted sound.
Only a certain range ofsounds our ears can take in without causing any damaged. It can be too loud forour hearing rage made from man made noise. For example, horns, airplanes flyover and the engine sound of vehicles. Constant expose to these load sound candamage our ear drum and lose the ability of hearing easily. Thus, it reduces oursensitivity to sounds.2. Sleeping disorders.
Loud noise sound, is very annoyto us when we are sleeping. They disturb our sleeping time and sleepingpattern. This can lead to and uncomfortable situation. Without a good nightsleep, we may feel fatigue in the morning and our performance may be drop inoffice, college as well as at home. That is why research always show that wemust have a proper sleep to get a good performance.3. Cardiovascular disease. Long-term expose to loudsound, our body will start to stimulate adrenaline hormone to adapt to it.
Therefore,blood pressure levels, stress level as well as any heart problem related to heartproblem will increase. 4. Communicating problems. In loud noise environmentalways is not a better place to talk because we must shout very loud, but theystill can’t hear what we say. It brings trouble and may not allow us to talkwith each other freely.5. Health issues.
Over expose to noise pollution inworking areas like construction sites, bars and even in our homes can cause psychologicalhealth. Aggressive behaviour, disturbance of sleep,, fatigue and hypertensioncan be linked to high noise levels. LightpollutionLight pollution, sometimes can be called as photo pollution,is the misdirected, excessive use of artificial outdoor light. Excessive lightcan alter the natural starlight and disrupts the biological clock of human beingand animal life. The light pollution keeps on growing as the artificial lightincreases each year.Photo pollution increase as the demand for outdoorlighting increased as countries became affluent and urbanized.
Thus, it is nota new phenomenon. The most light-polluted spot in the world is Hong Kong, China.The University of Hong Kong was named is the city that most light polluted inthe world in March 2013.
The night sky in Tsim Sha Tsui, is to be 1200 timesbrighter than a normal urban city sky.Causesof light pollutionLight pollution s caused by using excessive outdoorlight. The light they use are not necessary at where and when. Residential,commercial and industrial outdoor light that are poor in designed alsocontribute to light pollution.Unshielded light structure emits their light more than50 % to the sky or sideways.
In many cases, only 40 % of the light will emit andlight the ground. Nearly 30 % of outdoor lighting is wasted due to the poordesign. Besides, wasting light can cause electricity wasted.Effectsof light pollutionEnergy. Wasted in light can results in energy waste. 30%of all light emitted by public light is wasted, which mean that 2 TerawattHours per year of electrical energy are wasted. This is equivalent to about 3.6million tons of coal and 12.
9 million barrels of oil per year are wasted. Thetotal amount of wasted electrical energy each year is enough to sustain theelectrical power in over 11 million homes and 777,000 cars.Humans. Humans are regulated by circadian rhythms. Thebiological clock regulates our activities such as hormone production, cellregulation and brain wave patterns. This rhythm can be related to the light anddarkness. Disrupting these rhythms can lead to various problems. For example,sleep disorders, anxiety, diabetes, cancer, obesity and so on.
AcidDepositionIntroductionAcid deposition, sometimes known as acid rain. Acidrain is a rain that is unusually acidic. It means that the hydrogen ions levelsis relatively high and thus the pH of the rain is abnormally low. It can havebad effects on human being, animals, plants as well as infrastructure.What cause the rain become acid? It is caused by theemission of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which subsequently will reactwith the water molecule that exist in the atmosphere to produce acids. Acid rain can bring impacts to forests, freshwatersand soils. Not only that, corrosion of steel structures in building, bridges alsowill cause the safety of human be threaten.
Rain, is made up from water. As we know, the pH of thewater is pH 7. Any liquids the pH less than 7 are acidic, whereas the pH higherthan 7 are alkaline. Clean or unpolluted rain has an acidic pH, which the pHnaturally is lower than 7 but no lower than 5.7.
This is because in theatmosphere, there is carbon dioxide exist. The carbon dioxide will react togetherwith the water in the air to form carbonic acid, which is a weak acid. However, if the rain is reacting with sulphur dioxideor nitrogen oxide, will lead to the pH decreases some more, which is abnormallylower than 5.7. So, what cause the sulphur dioxide and nitric oxides escape tothe atmosphere? Combustion of fuels can produce sulphur dioxide and nitricoxides. Both compounds can be converted into sulphuric acid and nitric acidwhich eventually lead to acid decomposition or acid rain.
In the gas phase sulphur dioxide is oxidized byreaction with the hydroxyl radical. While in the presence of water, sulphurtrioxide can be converted rapidly to sulphuric acid. Next, nitrogen diode willbe reacted with OH- to form nitric acid. Causesof acid depositionAcid rain, can be described as any form ofprecipitation with high levels of sulphuric acid and nitric acid.
It can be anyform including the snow, fog, or even tiny bits of dry material that will fallto the Earth.What causes the acid rain to occur? The natural andman-made sources are playing an important role in the formation of acid rain. However,it is mainly caused by the combustion of fossil fuels which will released thesulphur dioxide(SO2) and nitrogen oxides(NO2)1.
Human- made SourcesChemical gas emission such as sulphur and nitrogenthat leaded by human activities are the major contributors to acid decomposition.For instance, factories, power generation facilities as well as automobileswill emit air pollution sources such as sulphur and nitrogen gases. In some cases,the use of coal to produce electrical power is the largest contributor to thegaseous emissions leading to acid rain. Factories and automobiles also will emithigh amount of pollution sources due to daily uses into the atmosphere,especially in high industrialized area and urban regions due to the largenumbers of car traffic.
These gases will react with the water, oxygen, andother chemicals in the atmosphere to form different acidic compounds. For example,sulphur acid, ammonium nitrate and nitric acid. As a result, these areasexperience high amounts of acid rain.
2. Natural sourcesNot only man-made source will cause acid rain. Naturalsources sometimes will lead to acid rain too. The primary natural source that causeacid rain is the volcanic emissions. The gases produced by volcanoes can createhigher than normal amounts of acid or any other form of precipitation to affectthe health of the human, animals and plants within in the area.Lighting strikes, is another source of natural sourcesthat cause acid rain.
It will naturally produce nitric oxides. Hence, reactwith water molecules in the atmosphere with the electrical energy to producenitric acid, thus forming acid rain. Effectof acid decompositionAcid decomposition, or acid rain has important effectson the public health and world environment. There is some effect on varioustarget.1. Effect on aquatic environment Acid.
Acid rain, caneither falls directly on to the water bodies or run off the roads, forests andflow into the water bodies such as rivers, seas, lakes. Over a time, acids willaccumulate in the water and lower the overall pH of the water body. Aquaticplants or animals required a certain pH level about 4.8 to live. If the pHlevel is lower than it usual, aquatic life are unable to survive. Lower pH cankill adult fish and reduces the biodiversity as rivers and lakes become relativelyacidic.
Fish, plant or even insect cannot survive in this environment2. Effect on soil. The soil need to maintain anoptimum pH level to get it optimum functions. Acid rain that highly destroy thesoil chemistry and biology.
It means, biological activity as well as soilchemical composition are damaged because of acid rain. When acid rain fallsinto the soil, it will damage the soil biological and chemical activities.Hence, soil microorganisms cannot adapt to changes in pH, and consequently getkilled.
3. Effect on buildings. As we all know, acid rain isacidic. Any acidic substance has the characteristics of corrosion.
Acid rainwill bring serious impact to the buildings, especially those constructed withlimestone. It will react with it and corrode it. This leaves the building weakand unable to support the weight and ultimately collapse, risking the life ofhuman being. Cars, airplanes and steel bridges are all affected by acid raintoo. Old heritage building can be cause by acid rain lead to irreplaceable damage.Effect on Public Health. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogenoxide gases in some variation can become sulphates and nitrates in atmosphere,will block the visibility of humans and animals.
Degrades of visibility cancause accidents, leading to injuries and even death. Human health is notdirectly affect by acid rain due to the acidic is too dilute to cause serious healthproblems. However, the nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide in gaseous state cancause serious health problems when we inhaled it. It can cause lung and heartproblems. For example, bronchitis and asthma. Waysto overcome acid rain 1.
Reduces theburning of coal. Most of the electrical energy is supporting the modern-dayenergy requirements. Those energy comes from the combustion of fossil fuels.For example, natural gas and coal that produce sulphur dioxide and nitrogenoxides and eventually as the main factor contribute to acid rain. Burning coal canproduce large amount of SO2. Thus, to prevent the acid rain happens, we mustreduce the waste of energy to lower down the burning of fossil fuels.2.
Alternative Energy Sources. There are various ofalternative energy sources that can generate electric power, not only fossilfuels. For example, wind energy, solar energy, hydropower and even nuclear energy.Wisely using this energy source will ultimately bring benefits to us, becausethey will can produce effective electrical power to us too. Besides, if we keepusing fossil fuels as our main source, one days it will used up. So, the only solutionis using sustainable energy that can protect the future.3.
Individual, national and international actions. Millions of people is contributingthe emission of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide directly and indirectlyinto the atmosphere. To reduces this case happens, all of us should reduce theusing of the energy. For instance, we can use public transport instead of usingour own car. Use energy efficient electrical appliances and use of hybridvehicles that will produce low NO2 is a good way to reduce the use of energy