This is an example of which of the following linguistic processes? A. positive transfer B. interlanguage C. phonemic awareness D. code-switching
provide skills practice in auditory/visual association. B. reinforce the tracking motions used in reading. C. encourage self-control and attention to teacher direction.
D. assess fluency in reading word combinations.
The teacher asks students to complete a pre-reading activity in which they keep a personal log of their eating habits for one week. This instructional activity is likely to be most effective for accomplishing which of the following instructional goals? A. establishing text-to-text connections between old and new material B. providing guided practice for development of students’ research skills C. increasing students’ understanding of their own cognitive processes D.
making meaningful connections between new material and students’ current knowledge and life experiences
reading an expository text about a historical event and creating a flow- chart showing the cause-and-effect sequences that led to the event D. reading a first-person narrative text and writing a description of the narrator based on details from the text
applying a proprietary formula to the text that takes into account the variables of word frequency and syntactic complexity C. using readability software that is able to measure the text’s word and sentence length quickly and accurately D. evaluating reader and task considerations such as background knowledge relevant to the text, reading purpose, and motivation
Many students exhibit strong preferences regarding the types of texts they read and are not equally enthusiastic about all types of reading. B. Teachers at each grade level do not use a uniform set of strategies and resources for providing their students with reading instruction. C. Most classrooms contain a significant amount of reading material with words and concepts that are unfamiliar to some of their students.
D. Some teachers provide reading instruction in whole-class settings based on the needs of the average reader in that classroom.
informally surveying a number of teachers in the school to see what strategies they would use to teach the particular reading skill D. consulting reading education journals to determine what current research suggests about how to teach this type of skill
The following is an excerpt from one of the completed checklists. (R=rarely S=sometimes U=Usually)When Listening to Literature, student..
. R S U-Recalls characters and setting X-Recalls facts and details from story X- Recalls events in story in sequence X-Recognizes rhyming words X-Recognizes words that begin with same sound XQuestion: Given the information in this checklist, the student would likely benefit most from instruction designed to help her: A. increase her oral vocabulary. B. foster her understanding of story structure.
C. enhance her phonemic awareness. D. improve her aural memory.
The following is an excerpt from one of the completed checklists. (R=rarely S=sometimes U=Usually)When Listening to Literature, student… R S U-Recalls characters and setting X-Recalls facts and details from story X- Recalls events in story in sequence X-Recognizes rhyming words X-Recognizes words that begin with same sound XQuestion: Which of the following would be the most appropriate use for this checklist? A.
screening for potential reading difficulties B. diagnosing a specific reading disability C. identifying specific auditory processing deficits D. determining an appropriate reading placement level
Yamada to analyze students’ oral reading and other assessment results in order to identify particular phonics patterns (e.g., CVVC, CCCVC) or phonics elements (e.
g., vowel teams, consonant blends) that are causing difficulties for students. To address these needs, Mr. Yamada should: 1) provide explicit instruction to improve students’ knowledge of targeted phonics patterns and/or phonics elements, and 2) provide frequent exposure to the targeted phonics patterns/elements through a variety of reading and writing activities. Mr. Yamada’s approach to providing explicit phonics instruction should becustomized to meet the particular needs of individual students or the shared needs of small groups of students. By third grade, students typically have already learned how to apply basic phonics knowledge in order to decode single-syllable words that follow common phonics patterns, such as CVC, CVCe, and CVCC, but they may still be struggling with more complex patterns such as those that contain one or more consonant clusters (e.g.
, CCCVCC, CCVCCC, CCCVCCC). If so, these students would benefit from instructional activities that promote their ability to accurately and automatically decode more advanced phonics elements or letter combinations (e.g., str-, thr-, spl-, -ight, -tch, kn-).
For example, Mr. Yamada might take advantage of common phonograms or word families that include words containing the difficult phonics elements (e.g., sang, clang, and sprang; catch, thatch, and scratch; fight, bright, and knight). In this way, students learn to decode unfamiliar single-syllable words by building on their knowledge of simpler, familiar words that have different onsets but shared rimes. Work with phonograms is particularly helpful in the case of rimes that actually contain the target letter combinations (e.g.
, -ight, -atch). The teacher should give the students guided practice in decoding target words in isolation as well as in connected text. Other students in the class may have mastered common single-syllable phonics patterns but still have difficulty using phonics to decode longer words. Learning to recognize familiar, pronounceable word parts within longer words (e.g., re-mem-ber) will help students decode unfamiliar multisyllable words. Teaching them to recognize the six most common English syllable patterns will further reinforce this decoding strategy. In addition to providing explicit instruction, Mr.
Yamada should reinforce students’ phonics knowledge through varied reading and writing activities that include words containing the targeted phonics patterns/elements. For example, students could work individually or in pairs to create their own word family booklets focused on target phonograms. Students could then share their booklets by displaying them and reading them aloud to one another. Another activity would be to have pairs of students who are working on the same phonics pattern compose sentences that use multiple words from the same word family (e.g.
, “I might make a tight right turn at the bright light tonight.”). Mr. Yamada also asks the reading specialist to recommend reading materials for reading instruction. I would respond that there are many different criteria for selecting reading materials, but a teacher should always begin by identifying the goal of instruction, and then select reading materials that will best address that goal. For example, if the goal of instruction is to promote students’ word identification skills, it is important to select texts for instruction that will allow students to practice applying word identification strategies (including phonics patterns/elements already taught) and that are written at individual students’ instructional reading levels. Texts at this level will challenge students but still allow them to experience progress and success in reading.
The texts also should engage students’ interests and activate their prior knowledge. That way, students will be motivated to become more fluent readers in order to gain meaning from the texts.
Mr. Yamada, a third-grade teacher, meets with a reading specialist to discuss an issue regarding reading instruction in his classroom. He tells the reading specialist that he regularly has his students read aloud to him in individual conferences. Mr. Yamada tells the reading specialist that he is concerned about his students’ ability to use phonics to identify unfamiliar words in text. In addition, he says he would appreciate suggestions regarding the selection of materials for reading instruction.
Using your knowledge of reading instruction, prepare a response in which you: • describe two instructional strategies or techniques the reading specialist could suggest that Mr. Yamada use to promote his students’ ability to use phonics to identify unfamiliar words in text and explain why each of the strategies or techniques you described would be effective; and • describe one guideline the reading specialist could suggest that Mr. Yamada use to select appropriate materials for reading instruction and explain why the guideline you described would be effective.
For each of the questions, the student has to explain the strategic reading process necessary to determine the answer. Which of the following best matches the comprehension strategy described?A. DR-TAB. KWLC. QARD.
(D) Readers and writers proceed through the same five stages and in the same order.
List three of the effects discussed.” The statement above calls for the use of which of the following types of comprehension?(A) Literal(B) Evaluative(C) Analytical(D) Inferential
Pennington teaching the lesson and experience first-hand how to use different strategies and how to group students in different ways for different purposes. Following the lesson, Ms. Pennington and the teacher should meet to discuss the lesson. The modeling Ms.
Pennington can provide would be very valuable to a new teacher.Along with the classroom teacher, Ms. Pennington can plan an intervention lesson with a struggling reader. The new teacher can then teach the lesson which could be videotaped. Following the lesson, Ms. Pennington and the teacher can view and discuss the instruction.Ms.
Pennington can coach the teacher on how to improve her techniques and also suggest additional strategies that can be used in future lessons.One professional development activity Ms. Pennington can do during weekly group meetings with the new teachers is have ongoing discussion about how to use assessment data to plan for differentiated instruction. Many teachers, especially new teachers, are overwhelmed by the amount of planning required for the job. This weekly topic would help the teachers discuss among themselves, under the leadership of the reading specialist, how to use data to plan appropriate instruction. Once teachers understand how and why to use data, planning for instruction would be less time-consuming and more productive for them; more effective teaching will also result in greater student achievement.Also, teachers must stay current with strategies, research, and exemplary practices in the field of literacy.
A book or professional journal study group can be formed with Ms. Pennington and the new teachers. The discussion in the study groups using these resources would give teachers the information needed to instruct students in literacy using the best and most current practices.
Pennington is a reading specialist in an elementary school. At the beginning of the year, four new teachers joined the staff. The principal requests that Ms. Pennington provide guidance for the new professionals throughout the school year in the area of literacy instruction.Task 1: Identify and explain the purpose of two professional development activities Ms. Pennington can implement while providing support within each teacher’s classroom.Task 2: Identify and explain the purpose of twoprofessional development activities Ms. Pennington can plan for weekly group meetings with the new teachers.
She cautions them, however, not to read so quickly that they leave out or misread a word. The teacher knows the components of reading fluency are:A. Speed, drama, and comprehensionB. Cohesion, rate, and prosodyC. Understanding, rate, and prosodyD. Rate, accuracy, and prosody
She decides to experiment. Her hypothesis is that by giving the entire class a chapter book above grade level, high-level readers will be satisfied, grade-level readers will be challenged in a positive way, and students reading below grade level will be inspired to improve. Her method is most likely to:A.
Succeed, producing students reading at an Instructional reading level. High-level readers will be happy to be given material appropriate to their reading level. Grade-level readers will challenge themselves to improve reading strategies in order to master the text. Because only a few of the students are reading below grade level, the other students, who feel happy and energized, will inspire the slower readers by modeling success.B.
Succeed, producing students reading at an Independent reading level. High-level readers will independently help grade-level readers who will, in turn, independently help those below grade level.C.
Fail, producing students at a Frustration reading level. Those reading below grade level are likely to give up entirely. Those reading at grade level are likely to get frustrated and form habits that will actually slow down their development.D. Fail, producing students reading at a Chaotic reading level. By nature, children are highly competitive. The teacher has not taken into consideration multiple learning styles.
The children who are at grade level will either become bitter and angry at those whose reading level is above grade level or simply give up. The children reading below grade level will not be able to keep up and will in all likelihood act out their frustration or completely shut down.
The class is reading a:A. SonnetB. VillanelleC. SestinaD. Limerick
The teacher points out that the student already knows quite a bit about penguins because the class studied them earlier in the year. He reminds the student that she’s recently seen a television show about the seals that also live in Antarctic waters. The teacher gives the student a list of words she’s likely to find in the text, and they discuss what those words might mean. The student begins to read, but stops to ask the teacher what circumpolar means. The teacher is also unfamiliar with the word, but reminds her that circum is a prefix. The student recalls that it means “about or around” and deduces that circumpolar most likely refers to something found around or in a polar region.
This instructional approach is called:A. Modular instructionB. ScaffoldingC.
DictionaryC. ThesaurusD. GlossaryE. All of the above
Tell storiesB. Give directionsC. Help solve problemsD.
Improve vocabularyE. All of the above
Makes connectionsD. Helps make revisions in understandingE. All of the above
He struggled not to give in when presented with the chocolate cake at the party. But he gave in and took just a little bite.C Tom can always resist eating chocolate chip cookies because he is allergic to chocolate. Peanut butter cookies are harder to resist.D Tom really likes chocolate chip cookies. He doesn’t care for snickerdoodles.
C Active reading.D Formative assessment.E Qualified reading.
D Allow students time to practice.E Choose words that are familiar and simple.
What do the two ‘S’ in the acronym stand for? A. Students, Scores B. Standards, Scores C. Support, Skills D. Scaffolding, Surveys E. Students, Standards
. P – Purposes (specific learning outcomes), A – Actions (what the teachers and students are doing to reach the outcomes), S – Students (what are the students learning?),S – Standards (do goals, actions and assessments meet expectations?)
C Le.D Ln.E La.
Danforth might suggest the following activities for building prosody to his peers:1. Model fluent reading. The teacher should read aloud and note what makes the reading fluent. For example, the teacher should note how his voice modulates to show feeling or how he stops for a breath at a comma or an end mark.
This will help the students understand what reading fluently means.2. Have the students practice reading at their independent levels to build confidence and fluency. Reading at independent level will help the students read with expression and smoothly because they will not have to stop to decode. Students might also participate in reading theater which will help them learn to read with expression.
C Reliability.D Cooperation.E Participation.
C One who works with.D Abnormal increase.E Rule.
B Fluency.C Comprehension.D Phonemic awareness.E Decoding.
Both runners are safe. Tommy learns that a sure tag on the bag is worth two outs you miss. The passage is an example of what?A A fableB A parableC A fairy taleD A wonder tale
“Fifteen men on a dead man’s chest, Yo, ho, ho and a bottle of rum.” This also shows the bloodthirstiness of pirates. Three: Pirates drink rum or other spirits. He “called roughly for a glass of rum.”Stevenson established the image of pirates that continues to today. Pirates are still represented as heavy drinkers. He drinks rum like a “connoisseur” or someone well-acquainted with it. Rum is a drink associated with the islands in the West Indies where pirates often hid from the navy.
So pirates are drunkards and fugitives which places them in the class of criminals.
Identify three images within it which characterize pirates. Explain how one of these images develops the character of this pirate and all pirates.Passage:I remember him as if it were yesterday, as he came plodding to the inn door, his sea-chest following behind him in a hand-barrow–a tall, strong, heavy, nut-brown man, his tarry pigtail falling over the shoulder of his soiled blue coat, his hands ragged and scarred, with black, broken nails, and the sabre cut across one cheek, a dirty, livid white. I remember him looking round the cover and whistling to himself as he did so, and then breaking out in that old sea-song that he sang so often afterwards:”Fifteen men on the dead man’s chest– Yo-ho-ho, and a bottle of rum!”in the high, old tottering voice that seemed to have been tuned and broken at the capstan bars. Then he rapped on the door with a bit of stick like a handspike that he carried, and when my father appeared, called roughly for a glass of rum. This, when it was brought to him, he drank slowly, like a connoisseur, lingering on the taste and still looking about him at the cliffs and up at our signboard.”This is a handy cove,” says he at length; “and a pleasant sittyated grog-shop. Much company, mate?”
A haiku is a three line, seventeen-syllable poem with the first line having five syllables, the second having seven, and the third five syllables. The senryu is a three-line poem without the strict 5-7-5 syllable form. Both are of Japanese origin. This poem has six or seven syllables in the first line, depending on how “babbling” is pronounced. The second line has five. The third line has six. The student could be asked to clap each line to note the number of syllables.
The feedback might sound like this:Teacher; What a great moment this poem invokes. I feel like I am there in the quiet woods with you watching the fish swim. You say that this is a haiku. Do you remember what the form of a haiku is? It is a poem which has three lines with a total of seventeen syllables. The first line has five syllables, the second has seven syllables and the third has five again. Do you think your poem follows that form?Student: It has three lines. It has seventeen syllables.
Teacher: Let’s clap each line together. (Clapping of syllables.) Your first line has six syllables.
Your second has five and your third has six again. Does that follow the strict form of the haiku?Student: I guess not quite.Teacher: No, your poem is what we call a senryu. It is close to a haiku but does not have to conform to the strict form of five-seven-five. Your poem does what a haiku does, create a feeling for the beauty of the scene, but it is not haiku. Do you want to keep it the way it is or try to recreate it to make it a haiku?Student: I think I can change it to make it a haiku now that you have explained it to me.
Teacher: I can’t wait to see it!
A student submits the following poem as haiku. Read the poem and provide thoughtful feedback for this student.Poem: The BrookBy SamuelFollowing the babblingI found a brookFish swam in the current.
Blocking off all but a single syllable at a time renders a word manageable and allows the reader a sense of control over the act of readingb. Word families. By grouping the sight word with similar words, patterns emergec. A phonemic approach. When students understand the connection between individual words and their sounds, they will be able to sound out any sight word they encounterd. None; sight words cannot be decoded. Readers must learn to recognize these words as wholes on sight
Proficiency with oral language enhances students’ phonemic awareness and increases vocabularyb. The more verbally expressive emergent readers are, the more confident they become. Such students will embrace both Academic and Independent reading levelsc. It encourages curiosity about others. With strong oral language skills, students begin to question the world around them. The more they ask, the richer their background knowledged.
It demonstrates to students that their ideas are important and worth sharing
The importance of characters to meaningc. The importance of culture to meaningd. The importance of creativity to meaning
Clarifying the goal, modeling strategies, and offering explanations geared to a student’s level of understandingb. Determining the goal, offering strategies, and asking questions designed to ascertain whether understanding has been reachedc. Reassessing the goal, developing strategies, and determining whether further reassessing of the goal is requiredd. Objectifying the goal, assessing strategies, and offering explanations geared toward a student’s level of understanding.
Having the student retell or summarize the material to determine how much was understoodb. Giving a written test that covers plot, theme, character development, sequence of events, rising action, climax, falling action, and outcome. A student must test at a 95% accuracy rate to be considered fluent at silent readingc. Giving a three-minute Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency four times a year. The student is presented with text in which spaces between words and all punctuation have been removed.
The student must divide one word from another with slash marks, as in the following example: The/little/sailboat/bobbed/so/far/in/the/distance/it/looked/like/a/toy. The more words a student accurately separates, the higher her silent reading fluency scored. Silent reading fluency cannot be assessed. It is a private act between the reader and the text and does not invite critique