Practice Test Questions, based on Praxis

An English Language Learner whose
primary language uses definite and
indefinite articles has little difficulty
understanding the use of articles in
English. This is an example of which
of the following linguistic processes?

A. positive transfer
B. interlanguage
C. phonemic awareness
D. code-switching

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A first-grade teacher places a “start here”
sticker in the upper-left corner of a poster
listing several short sentences. As he
points to each word, he has students read
the sentences in unison. The primary
benefit of this activity is to:

A. provide skills practice in
auditory/visual association.
B. reinforce the tracking motions used
in reading.
C. encourage self-control and attention
to teacher direction.
D. assess fluency in reading word

A health class is beginning a new unit on
nutrition. The teacher asks students to
complete a pre-reading activity in which
they keep a personal log of their eating
habits for one week. This instructional
activity is likely to be most effective for
accomplishing which of the following
instructional goals?

A. establishing text-to-text connections
between old and new material
B. providing guided practice for
development of students’ research
C. increasing students’ understanding
of their own cognitive processes
D. making meaningful connections
between new material and students’
current knowledge and life

Which of the following reading and
writing activities would best promote the
development of a sixth-grade student’s
literal comprehension skills?
A. reading two newspaper editorials
about the same topic and creating a
chart comparing the evidence the
authors use to support their opinions
B. reading a grade-level book and
writing a new chapter describing
what happened next to the main
C. reading an expository text about a
historical event and creating a flow-
chart showing the cause-and-effect
sequences that led to the event
D. reading a first-person narrative text
and writing a description of the
narrator based on details from the

A reading specialist is evaluating the text
complexity of various reading materials
for use in the reading program. Which of
the following strategies would be most
effective for the reading specialist to use
to measure qualitative dimensions of text
A. analyzing factors such as the text’s
levels of meaning, language clarity,
and knowledge demands
B. applying a proprietary formula to
the text that takes into account the
variables of word frequency and
syntactic complexity
C. using readability software that is
able to measure the text’s word and
sentence length quickly and
D. evaluating reader and task
considerations such as background
knowledge relevant to the text,
reading purpose, and motivation

Which of the following would be an
appropriate responsibility to assign to a
paraprofessional in a reading program?
A. advocating with classroom teachers
on behalf of students
B. tutoring individual or small groups
of students with teacher guidance
C. monitoring the implementation of a
student’s Individualized Education
Program (IEP)
D. interpreting the results of diagnostic
reading tests

An elementary school has just completed
an evaluation of its reading program. In
reviewing the results of the evaluation,
the reading specialist should probably
consider which of the following the most
serious problem?
A. Many students exhibit strong
preferences regarding the types of
texts they read and are not equally
enthusiastic about all types of
B. Teachers at each grade level do
not use a uniform set of strategies
and resources for providing their
students with reading instruction.
C. Most classrooms contain a
significant amount of reading
material with words and concepts
that are unfamiliar to some of their
D. Some teachers provide reading
instruction in whole-class settings
based on the needs of the average
reader in that classroom.

A new reading specialist would like to
determine what instructional strategy is
likely to be most effective in teaching
students a particular reading skill. Which
of the following strategies would best
foster the reading specialist’s own
professional growth while addressing this
A. asking students with varying levels
of reading proficiency to describe
the type of instruction they most
B. making a list of possible strategies
for teaching the reading skill, trying
each strategy with a different
student, and assessing the results
C. informally surveying a number of
teachers in the school to see what
strategies they would use to teach
the particular reading skill
D. consulting reading education
journals to determine what current
research suggests about how to
teach this type of skill

Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

At the beginning of the school year, a first-grade teacher completes a checklist for each student in the class. The following is an excerpt from one of the completed checklists. (R=rarely S=sometimes U=Usually)

When Listening to Literature, student… R S U
-Recalls characters and setting X
-Recalls facts and details from story X
– Recalls events in story in sequence X
-Recognizes rhyming words X
-Recognizes words that begin with same sound X

Question: Given the information in this checklist, the
student would likely benefit most from
instruction designed to help her:
A. increase her oral vocabulary.
B. foster her understanding of story
C. enhance her phonemic awareness.
D. improve her aural memory.

Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

At the beginning of the school year, a first-grade teacher completes a checklist for each student in the class. The following is an excerpt from one of the completed checklists. (R=rarely S=sometimes U=Usually)

When Listening to Literature, student… R S U
-Recalls characters and setting X
-Recalls facts and details from story X
– Recalls events in story in sequence X
-Recognizes rhyming words X
-Recognizes words that begin with same sound X

Question: Which of the following would be the most
appropriate use for this checklist?
A. screening for potential reading
B. diagnosing a specific reading
C. identifying specific auditory
processing deficits
D. determining an appropriate reading
placement level

If I were the reading specialist, I would first encourage Mr. Yamada to analyze students’ oral reading and other assessment results in order to identify particular phonics
patterns (e.g., CVVC, CCCVC) or phonics elements (e.g., vowel teams, consonant blends) that are causing difficulties for students. To address these needs, Mr. Yamada should: 1) provide explicit instruction to improve students’ knowledge of targeted phonics patterns and/or phonics elements, and 2) provide frequent exposure to the targeted phonics patterns/elements through a variety of reading and writing activities. Mr. Yamada’s approach to providing explicit phonics instruction should becustomized to meet the particular needs of individual students or the shared needs of small groups of students. By third grade, students typically have already learned how to apply basic phonics knowledge in order to decode single-syllable words that follow common phonics patterns, such as CVC,
CVCe, and CVCC, but they may still be struggling with more complex patterns such as those that contain one or more consonant clusters (e.g., CCCVCC, CCVCCC, CCCVCCC). If so, these students would benefit from instructional activities that promote their ability to
accurately and automatically decode more advanced phonics elements or letter combinations (e.g., str-, thr-, spl-, -ight, -tch, kn-). For example, Mr. Yamada might take advantage of common phonograms or word families that include words containing the difficult phonics elements (e.g., sang, clang, and sprang; catch, thatch, and scratch; fight, bright, and knight). In this way, students learn to decode unfamiliar single-syllable words by building on their knowledge of simpler, familiar words that have different onsets but shared rimes. Work with phonograms is particularly helpful in the case of rimes that
actually contain the target letter combinations (e.g., -ight, -atch). The teacher should give the students guided practice in decoding target words in isolation as well as in connected text.
Other students in the class may have mastered common single-syllable phonics patterns but still have difficulty using phonics to decode longer words. Learning to recognize familiar, pronounceable word parts within longer words (e.g., re-mem-ber) will help students decode unfamiliar multisyllable words. Teaching them to recognize the six most common English syllable patterns will further reinforce this decoding strategy.
In addition to providing explicit instruction, Mr. Yamada should reinforce students’ phonics knowledge through varied reading and writing activities that include words containing the targeted phonics patterns/elements. For example, students could work individually or in pairs to create their own word family booklets focused on target
phonograms. Students could then share their booklets by displaying them and reading them aloud to one another. Another activity would be to have pairs of students who are working on the same phonics pattern compose sentences that use multiple words from the same word family (e.g., “I might make a tight right turn at the bright light tonight.”).
Mr. Yamada also asks the reading specialist to recommend reading materials for reading instruction. I would respond that there are many different criteria for selecting reading materials, but a teacher should always
begin by identifying the goal of instruction, and then select reading materials that will best address that goal. For example, if the goal of instruction is to promote students’ word identification skills, it is important to select texts for instruction that will allow students to practice applying word identification strategies (including phonics patterns/elements already taught) and that are written at
individual students’ instructional reading levels. Texts at this level will challenge students but still allow them to experience progress and success in reading. The texts also should engage students’ interests and activate their prior knowledge. That way, students will be motivated to become more fluent readers in order to gain meaning from the texts.
Constructed Response:
Use the information below about a classroom teacher consulting with a reading specialist to respond to the assignment that follows.
Mr. Yamada, a third-grade teacher, meets with a reading specialist to discuss an issue regarding reading instruction in his classroom. He tells the reading specialist that he regularly has his students read aloud to him in individual conferences.
Mr. Yamada tells the reading specialist that he is concerned about his students’ ability to use phonics to
identify unfamiliar words in text. In addition, he says he would appreciate suggestions regarding the selection of materials for reading instruction.
Using your knowledge of reading instruction, prepare a response in which you:
• describe two instructional strategies or techni
ques the reading specialist could suggest that
Mr. Yamada use to promote his students’ ability
to use phonics to identify unfamiliar words in
text and explain why each of the strategies or t
echniques you described would be effective; and
• describe one guideline the reading specialist could su
ggest that Mr. Yamada use to select appropriate
materials for reading instruction and explain why
the guideline you described would be effective.

A science teacher asks the school reading specialist for strategies to help students to acquire content-area vocabulary and improve their comprehension of the science textbook. Which of the following strategies is most
appropriate for the reading specialist to recommend for this goal?
(A)Introducing key vocabulary terms in context
before reading the text
(B) Selecting words from the text and having
students write down the definitions from
the glossary
(C) Pretesting students on the vocabulary terms
from the textbook
(D) Comparing the dictionary definitions of the
vocabulary terms with the definitions found
in the textbook glossary

A fourth grade student writes answers to comprehension questions after reading a chapter in a novel. For each of the questions, the student has to explain the strategic reading process necessary to determine the answer. Which of the following best matches the comprehension strategy described?

Research indicates that a relationship exists between reading and writing. Which of the following statements supports that finding?
(A) Reading is a constructive process, and
writing is a recursive one.
(B) Reading emphasizes syllabication, and
writing emphasizes semantics.
(C) Reading and writing share similar processes
and require using the same kinds of
(D) Readers and writers proceed through the
same five stages and in the same order.

Language-experience activities in kindergarten can best be used to benefit students’ early literacy development by
(A)providing an authentic way to demonstrate word awareness in a meaningful context.
(B)giving students opportunities to build alphabet-recognition skills
(C)demonstrating how to write in various genres
(D)providing a model of correct grammatical structures in written expression

Which of the following sets of reading activities are incorporated and practiced in a KWL strategy?
(A)Recording information, reading text, and predicting outcomes
(B) Learning content-area vocabulary and structural word-analysis skills
(C) Surveying, questioning, reading, reciting, and reviewing new text
(D) Activating prior knowledge, generating questions, and recording newly learned information

Students in elementary school classes often represent a wide range of reading abilities. Which of the following approaches would best meet the needs of all students?
(A) Establishing three ability groups for each subject
(B) Using the same text for all students but modifying assignments
(C) Asking the reading specialist to work with the lowest reading group
(D) Using flexible grouping and a variety of materials

A reading specialist is collecting data on a kindergarten student’s knowledge of phonemic awareness skills. The reading specialist asks the student, “Which word does not belong? Plant, play, rain, please.” Which of the following
phonemic-awareness skills is the teacher assessing?
(A) Deletion
(B) Categorization
(C) Substitution
(D) Segmentation

The major goal of methods such as SQ3R is to enhance which of the following?
(A) Identifying sequential narration
(B) Assessing literary elements
(C) Integrating new and prior knowledge
(D) Learning information from content-area materials

“In the passage you have just read, the effects of stress on family members were explained. List three of the effects discussed.”
The statement above calls for the use of which of the following types of comprehension?
(A) Literal
(B) Evaluative
(C) Analytical
(D) Inferential

Which of the following is the term used to identify the average amount that scores differ from the mean on a standardized test?
(A) Standard deviation
(B) Grade-equivalent score
(C) Cutoff score
(D) Percentile rank

A teacher who relates Vygotsky’s theories to teaching reading is most likely to design instruction that
(A) occurs consistently within a student’s zone of proximal development
(B) provides extensive practice before mastery is declared
(C) begins only when a student has mastered needed cognitive structures
(D) organizes cooperative group work so that every member of the group has specific responsibilities

The most important reason for students to have a story schema is so they can better
(A) evaluate different literary genres
(B) understand and recall story events
(C) identify the author’s viewpoint
(D) construct a diagram of the plot

When a student who is reading aloud substitutes a word of similar meaning for a word that appears in print, the teacher’s most appropriate response should be to
(A) immediately ask the student to reread the word correctly
(B) quietly and quickly correct the miscue by pronouncing the correct word aloud as soon as the student makes the mistake
(C) stop the student immediately, write both words down, and have the student identify and read the word as it appears in the text
(D) allow the student to continue reading, since occasional miscues are a normal aspect of reading

Which of the following statements about automaticity in reading is true?
(A) The reader slows down when reading new words.
(B) The reader reads a leveled text with 90 percent accuracy.
(C) The reader focuses attention on decoding unfamiliar words.
(D) The reader is free to attend to processing meaning

According to schema theorists, vocabulary instruction improves reading comprehension most effectively when students learn
(A) a network of relationships among concepts that the words represent
(B) how to use context clues as an aid to word recognition
(C) to focus on specific sentences in text to understand how words are used
(D) how to apply structural and phonics analysis skills independently to new words

Ms. Pennington can implement several professional
development activities with her new teachers within
their classrooms. One idea is to plan several reading
lessons together. The teacher can then observe
Ms. Pennington teaching the lesson and experience
first-hand how to use different strategies and how to
group students in different ways for different purposes.
Following the lesson, Ms. Pennington and the teacher
should meet to discuss the lesson. The modeling Ms.
Pennington can provide would be very valuable to a new
Along with the classroom teacher, Ms. Pennington can
plan an intervention lesson with a struggling reader. The
new teacher can then teach the lesson which could be
videotaped. Following the lesson, Ms. Pennington and
the teacher can view and discuss the instruction.
Ms. Pennington can coach the teacher on how to
improve her techniques and also suggest additional
strategies that can be used in future lessons.
One professional development activity
Ms. Pennington can do during weekly group meetings
with the new teachers is have ongoing discussion about
how to use assessment data to plan for differentiated
instruction. Many teachers, especially new teachers,
are overwhelmed by the amount of planning required
for the job. This weekly topic would help the teachers
discuss among themselves, under the leadership of the
reading specialist, how to use data to plan appropriate
instruction. Once teachers understand how and why
to use data, planning for instruction would be less
time-consuming and more productive for them; more
effective teaching will also result in greater student
Also, teachers must stay current with strategies, research,
and exemplary practices in the field of literacy. A book or
professional journal study group can be formed with Ms.
Pennington and the new teachers. The discussion in the
study groups using these resources would give teachers
the information needed to instruct students in literacy
using the best and most current practices.
Constructed Response:
Ms. Pennington is a reading specialist in an elementary school. At the beginning of the year, four new teachers joined the staff. The principal requests that Ms. Pennington provide guidance for the new professionals throughout the school year in the area of literacy instruction.
Task 1: Identify and explain the purpose of two professional development activities Ms. Pennington can
implement while providing support within each teacher’s classroom.
Task 2: Identify and explain the purpose of two
professional development activities Ms. Pennington can plan for weekly group meetings with the new teachers.

A teacher is working with a group of third graders at the same reading level. Her goal is to improve reading fluency. She asks each child in turn to read a page from a book about mammal young. She asks the children to read with expression. She also reminds them they don’t need to stop between each word; they should read as quickly as they comfortably can. She cautions them, however, not to read so quickly that they leave out or misread a word. The teacher knows the components of reading fluency are:
A. Speed, drama, and comprehension
B. Cohesion, rate, and prosody
C. Understanding, rate, and prosody
D. Rate, accuracy, and prosody

A third-grade teacher has several students reading above grade level. Most of the remaining students are reading at grade level. There are also a few students reading below grade level. She decides to experiment. Her hypothesis is that by giving the entire class a chapter book above grade level, high-level readers will be satisfied, grade-level readers will be challenged in a positive way, and students reading below grade level will be inspired to improve. Her method is most likely to:

A. Succeed, producing students reading at an Instructional reading level. High-level readers will be happy to be given material appropriate to their reading level. Grade-level readers will challenge themselves to improve reading strategies in order to master the text. Because only a few of the students are reading below grade level, the other students, who feel happy and energized, will inspire the slower readers by modeling success.
B. Succeed, producing students reading at an Independent reading level. High-level readers will independently help grade-level readers who will, in turn, independently help those below grade level.
C. Fail, producing students at a Frustration reading level. Those reading below grade level are likely to give up entirely. Those reading at grade level are likely to get frustrated and form habits that will actually slow down their development.
D. Fail, producing students reading at a Chaotic reading level. By nature, children are highly competitive. The teacher has not taken into consideration multiple learning styles. The children who are at grade level will either become bitter and angry at those whose reading level is above grade level or simply give up. The children reading below grade level will not be able to keep up and will in all likelihood act out their frustration or completely shut down.

A ninth grade class is reading a 14-line poem in iambic pentameter. There are three stanzas of four lines each, and a two-line couplet at the end. Words at the end of each line rhyme with another word in the same stanza. The class is reading a:

A. Sonnet
B. Villanelle
C. Sestina
D. Limerick

A teacher has challenged a student with a book about Antarctica that is just beyond the high end of the student’s Instructional level. The teacher points out that the student already knows quite a bit about penguins because the class studied them earlier in the year. He reminds the student that she’s recently seen a television show about the seals that also live in Antarctic waters. The teacher gives the student a list of words she’s likely to find in the text, and they discuss what those words might mean. The student begins to read, but stops to ask the teacher what circumpolar means. The teacher is also unfamiliar with the word, but reminds her that circum is a prefix. The student recalls that it means “about or around” and deduces that circumpolar most likely refers to something found around or in a polar region. This instructional approach is called:

A. Modular instruction
B. Scaffolding
C. Linking
D. Transmutation

“Coarticulation” affects:

A. Blending awareness
B. Phonemic awareness
C. Sequencing
D. Aural awareness

What is the most effective way to increase vocabulary?

A. Reading
B. Conversations
C. Watching television
D. Listening to the radio
E. Going to the movies

Which of the following is a tool that helps students learn vocabulary?

A. Vocabulary lists
B. Dictionary
C. Thesaurus
D. Glossary
E. All of the above

What do the “funny squiggles” (i.e., words) on the page do for a child?

A. Tell stories
B. Give directions
C. Help solve problems
D. Improve vocabulary
E. All of the above

Which of the following is not a direct result of using a clarifying table?

A. Core concept captured
B. Supporting ideas recognized
C. Increases vocabulary
D. Details reported
E. Connections made

Why is background knowledge important to reading comprehension?

A. Expands vocabulary
B. Helps integrate new data
C. Makes connections
D. Helps make revisions in understanding
E. All of the above

Students from high literacy home environments:

A Are surrounded by reading material

B Are good public speakers

C Have few opportunities to practice reading skills

D All of the above

Reading fluency is:

A Concentrating on the meaning

B Focusing on the words

C Ability to communicate information

D All of the above

A child learns words by:

A Memorizing the alphabet

B Conversations with adults

C Beginning a formal reading program at age 3

D All of the above

Reasons students add a new word to their active vocabulary may include:

A They are required to memorize it

B It will improve their grades

C The word makes a connection to known information

D All of the above

The whole language approach used in reading instruction:

A Requires rote memorization

B Presents material independent from previously-learned knowledge

C Emphasizes working in groups

D All of the above

Phonics is:

A Analytical

B Helps students sound out new words

C Expands vocabulary

D All of the above

Some ways to improve students’ reading, writing, listening and speaking skills may include:

A Require memorization

B Carefully critique written work

C Dismiss the need to listen

D All of the above

Guided oral reading can best be used with:

A Older learners

B English Language Learners

C Students who already enjoy reading

D All of the above

Context clues that may help students comprehend new words include:

A Definitions

B Descriptions

C Restatements

D All of the above

The most important reason students should read is:

A For pleasure

B To increase comprehension skils

C To increase vocabulary skills

D All of the above

One strategy for teaching a new vocabulary word is example/nonexample. Which of the following is a good example of this strategy for the word resist?

A Tom tries to resist eating cookies on his diet, but he could not resist the chocolate chips at the meeting.
B Tom is on a diet. He struggled not to give in when presented with the chocolate cake at the party. But he gave in and took just a little bite.
C Tom can always resist eating chocolate chip cookies because he is allergic to chocolate. Peanut butter cookies are harder to resist.
D Tom really likes chocolate chip cookies. He doesn’t care for snickerdoodles.

A student attempts to gain a deeper understanding of the words “socialism” and “communism” by analyzing how the words are related. This is an example of

A Semantic feature analysis.
B Word derivation.
C Active reading.
D Formative assessment.
E Qualified reading.

To be most effective in the classroom, reading specialists need

A Clearly defined roles.
B Authority to overrule teachers.
C A teacher’s aide or assistant.
D Assessment tools that are different from the teacher’s.
E Certification in specific subjects, such as science or history.

In assessing a student’s understanding of print concepts, a teacher might ask a student to

A Point to “just one word” in a story
B Repeat a sentence that the teacher has read aloud
C Describe one of the characters in a story
D Describe what happens in a story
E Find the word “cat” in a story

Which of the following statements about sight words is true?

A They help build phonemic awareness
B They come easily to early readers
C They need to be memorized
D They help build an understanding of syllables
E They help children learn how to decode words

Which of the following is not a part of a lesson on phonological awareness?

A Teach only one or two skills each lesson.
B Making sure to connect the lesson with previous lessons.
C Demonstrate all tasks.
D Allow students time to practice.
E Choose words that are familiar and simple.

When surveying reading programs, the focus is on the PASS method. What do the two ‘S’ in the acronym stand for?

A. Students, Scores
B. Standards, Scores
C. Support, Skills
D. Scaffolding, Surveys
E. Students, Standards

PASS stands for…
P – Purposes (specific learning outcomes),
A – Actions (what the teachers and students are doing to reach the outcomes),
S – Students (what are the students learning?),
S – Standards (do goals, actions and assessments meet expectations?)

Which skill would most likely be developed first when a student learns to recognize phonemes?

A Identifying individual phonemes
B Blending phonemes
C Categorizing phonemes
D Isolating phonemes

Reading a passage, students see the abbreviation for the word, lane. What is the correct abbreviation?

A Lan.
B L.
C Le.
D Ln.
E La.

In selecting reading materials for a comprehensive reading program, a reading specialist should consider all of the following questions EXCEPT

A Do the materials address the needs of all learners?
B Do the materials provide for the varying reading levels of students?
C Is there variety in the materials (fiction, non-fiction, poetry)?
D Do the materials provide students opportunities to understand their own backgrounds and those of others?
E Are the materials produced by a major publisher?

Fluency is reading smoothly, accurately, and with expression. Research shows that reading fluently is a good indicator of reading success. Mr. Danforth might suggest the following activities for building prosody to his peers:

1. Model fluent reading. The teacher should read aloud and note what makes the reading fluent. For example, the teacher should note how his voice modulates to show feeling or how he stops for a breath at a comma or an end mark. This will help the students understand what reading fluently means.

2. Have the students practice reading at their independent levels to build confidence and fluency. Reading at independent level will help the students read with expression and smoothly because they will not have to stop to decode. Students might also participate in reading theater which will help them learn to read with expression.

Constructed Response:

Mr. Danforth teaches fifth grade language arts. His district has a focus on building student reading fluency. Mr. Danforth has been asked to suggest some activities which will build fluency and present them at a faculty meeting. List two activities he might suggest. Explain how these will build fluency.

Genre knowledge helps students interpret the meaning of text by

A Explaining unfamiliar vocabulary.
B Allowing students to skim the text.
C Limiting new vocabulary.
D Reducing the complexity of the text.
E Setting expectations about the text.

Which of the following is the central focus of the whole language approach to reading?

A Phonics
B Fluency
C Meaning
D Sight words
E Decoding strategies

What is the problem with scoring a student portfolio?

A Validity.
B Rubrics.
C Reliability.
D Cooperation.
E Participation.

With five stages of literacy achievement, which of the following would MOST likely be the second?

A “Emergent reading and writing.”
B “Reading word-by-word and halted writing.”
C “Interruptions in making meaning.”
D “Proficient reading and writing.”
E “Reflective reading and distinguished writing.”

The five stages of literacy achievement are as follows:

Stage 1: “Emergent reading and writing.”

Stage 2: “Reading word-by-word and halted writing.”

Stage 3: “Interruptions in making meaning.”

Stage 4: “Proficient reading and writing.”

Stage 5: “Reflective reading and distinguished writing.”

5 Stages of Literacy Development

As a resource to the teacher, a reading specialist can help the teacher with student fluency by providing several activities that increase it. Which of the following is associated with the Partner Reading activity?

A This should only be performed at home, not in the classroom.
B Each student reads the story out loud.
C Only the teacher reads the story, the students just listen.
D This should only be performed in the classroom, not at home.
E Each student “whisper” reads the story to self.

What is the meaning of the suffix -osis as in “fibrosis”?

A Fear of.
B Skill or art of.
C One who works with.
D Abnormal increase.
E Rule.

When a student reads aloud using proper intonation, phrasing, and expression, it can be said that the student has achieved which of the following,

A Vocabulary.
B Fluency.
C Comprehension.
D Phonemic awareness.
E Decoding.

Which of the following is the best approach to developing a list of topics for a professional development program?

A Use topics from previous years as a starting point
B Ask administrators to suggest topics
C Consult professional journals
D Ask teachers for suggestions
E Limit the list to as few topics as possible

Synthetic phonics focuses on

A Blending sounds
B Letter-sound correspondence
C Phonemic awareness
D Fluency
E Comprehension

An assessment accurately reflects the curriculum that is taught. This assessment is said to have

A Content validity
B Construct validity
C Predictive validity
D Concurrent validity
E Consequential validity

Graphic organizers help students

A Improve fluency.
B Practice spelling.
C Learn phonics.
D Choose reading material.
E Classify information.

How is reading rate usually measured?

A Minutes per page
B Characters per minute
C Words per minute
D Sentences per minute
E Minutes per passage

How many syllable patterns are there?

A 5
B 6
C 4
D 7
E 8

All of the following are characteristics of a high-literacy home environment EXCEPT

A A variety of reading materials in the home
B Family members read for enjoyment
C Parents read aloud to young children
D Parents engage in conversations with children
E Parents teach preschool children to read

Tommy catches a ball thrown by his outfielder and waits for the runner to reach home base so that he can tag him out. He sees that another runner is approaching second base and throws the ball to the second baseman who drops it. Both runners are safe. Tommy learns that a sure tag on the bag is worth two outs you miss.

The passage is an example of what?

A A fable
B A parable
C A fairy tale
D A wonder tale

A teacher who helps students discover the meaning of a word by studying its place in a sentence is demonstrating the use of

A Context clues
B Syntactic clues
C Synonyms
D Parallelism
E Morphemes

A reading specialist is working on a list of possible topics for a professional development program for elementary teachers. Which of the following would be the most appropriate way to approach this task?

A Prepare a list of possible topics and circulate it for comments.
B Ask administrators to suggest a list of topics.
C Begin with the topics that have been used in the past.
D Find out what topics are being used in other schools.
E Ask teachers to suggest topics.

Specific outcomes that a lesson is expected to achieve are called

A Goals.
B Procedures.
C Objectives.
D Assessments.
E Inventories.

In which of the following are leveled reading selections most important?

A An informal reading inventory
B A running record
C A screening test
D A diagnostic test
E A miscue anlaysis

What law established the Reading First program?

A The No Child Left Behind Act
B The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
C Title IX
D The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
E The Education Accountability Act

Three images of pirates:

One: Pirates carry sea-chests possibly holding treasure.

Two: Pirates sing sea-songs. “Fifteen men on a dead man’s chest, Yo, ho, ho and a bottle of rum.” This also shows the bloodthirstiness of pirates.

Three: Pirates drink rum or other spirits. He “called roughly for a glass of rum.”

Stevenson established the image of pirates that continues to today. Pirates are still represented as heavy drinkers. He drinks rum like a “connoisseur” or someone well-acquainted with it. Rum is a drink associated with the islands in the West Indies where pirates often hid from the navy. So pirates are drunkards and fugitives which places them in the class of criminals.

Constructed Response:
Robert Louis Stevenson’s “Treasure Island” is responsible for much of the imagery we associate with pirates. Read the following excerpt. Identify three images within it which characterize pirates. Explain how one of these images develops the character of this pirate and all pirates.

I remember him as if it were yesterday, as he came plodding to the inn door, his sea-chest following behind him in a hand-barrow–a tall, strong, heavy, nut-brown man, his tarry pigtail falling over the shoulder of his soiled blue coat, his hands ragged and scarred, with black, broken nails, and the sabre cut across one cheek, a dirty, livid white. I remember him looking round the cover and whistling to himself as he did so, and then breaking out in that old sea-song that he sang so often afterwards:

“Fifteen men on the dead man’s chest– Yo-ho-ho, and a bottle of rum!”in the high, old tottering voice that seemed to have been tuned and broken at the capstan bars. Then he rapped on the door with a bit of stick like a handspike that he carried, and when my father appeared, called roughly for a glass of rum. This, when it was brought to him, he drank slowly, like a connoisseur, lingering on the taste and still looking about him at the cliffs and up at our signboard.

“This is a handy cove,” says he at length; “and a pleasant sittyated grog-shop. Much company, mate?”

Students often confuse the strict form of haiku with the less restricted form of senryu. A haiku is a three line, seventeen-syllable poem with the first line having five syllables, the second having seven, and the third five syllables. The senryu is a three-line poem without the strict 5-7-5 syllable form. Both are of Japanese origin. This poem has six or seven syllables in the first line, depending on how “babbling” is pronounced. The second line has five. The third line has six. The student could be asked to clap each line to note the number of syllables. The feedback might sound like this:

Teacher; What a great moment this poem invokes. I feel like I am there in the quiet woods with you watching the fish swim. You say that this is a haiku. Do you remember what the form of a haiku is? It is a poem which has three lines with a total of seventeen syllables. The first line has five syllables, the second has seven syllables and the third has five again. Do you think your poem follows that form?
Student: It has three lines. It has seventeen syllables.

Teacher: Let’s clap each line together. (Clapping of syllables.) Your first line has six syllables. Your second has five and your third has six again. Does that follow the strict form of the haiku?

Student: I guess not quite.

Teacher: No, your poem is what we call a senryu. It is close to a haiku but does not have to conform to the strict form of five-seven-five. Your poem does what a haiku does, create a feeling for the beauty of the scene, but it is not haiku. Do you want to keep it the way it is or try to recreate it to make it a haiku?

Student: I think I can change it to make it a haiku now that you have explained it to me.

Teacher: I can’t wait to see it!

Mr. Eby has been encouraging his seventh grade students to write poetry. He has read poems aloud, discussed poets and styles, and shared his own poetry. He has explained various poetic devices, such as alliteration and repetition, and forms, such as haiku, cinquain, clerihew, and free-verse. A student submits the following poem as haiku. Read the poem and provide thoughtful feedback for this student.

The Brook
By Samuel

Following the babbling

I found a brook

Fish swam in the current.

The most effective strategy for decoding sight words is:

a. Segmenting sight words into syllables. Beginning readers are understandably nervous when encountering a long word that isn’t familiar. Blocking off all but a single syllable at a time renders a word manageable and allows the reader a sense of control over the act of reading
b. Word families. By grouping the sight word with similar words, patterns emerge
c. A phonemic approach. When students understand the connection between individual words and their sounds, they will be able to sound out any sight word they encounter
d. None; sight words cannot be decoded. Readers must learn to recognize these words as wholes on sight

Research indicates that developing oral language proficiency in emergent readers is important because:

a. Proficiency with oral language enhances students’ phonemic awareness and increases vocabulary
b. The more verbally expressive emergent readers are, the more confident they become. Such students will embrace both Academic and Independent reading levels
c. It encourages curiosity about others. With strong oral language skills, students begin to question the world around them. The more they ask, the richer their background knowledge
d. It demonstrates to students that their ideas are important and worth sharing

A teacher instructs her class to select a fairy tale and modernize it without changing the basic structure. Evil kings and queens could become corrupt politicians; pumpkins could turn into Hummers, and romantic princes might reveal themselves as rock stars. The teacher believes this assignment will most effectively demonstrate to the students:

a. The importance of setting to meaning
b. The importance of characters to meaning
c. The importance of culture to meaning
d. The importance of creativity to meaning

Components of “explicit instruction” include:

a. Clarifying the goal, modeling strategies, and offering explanations geared to a student’s level of understanding
b. Determining the goal, offering strategies, and asking questions designed to ascertain whether understanding has been reached
c. Reassessing the goal, developing strategies, and determining whether further reassessing of the goal is required
d. Objectifying the goal, assessing strategies, and offering explanations geared toward a student’s level of understanding.

Silent reading fluency can best be assessed by:

a. Having the student retell or summarize the material to determine how much was understood
b. Giving a written test that covers plot, theme, character development, sequence of events, rising action, climax, falling action, and outcome. A student must test at a 95% accuracy rate to be considered fluent at silent reading
c. Giving a three-minute Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency four times a year. The student is presented with text in which spaces between words and all punctuation have been removed. The student must divide one word from another with slash marks, as in the following example: The/little/sailboat/bobbed/so/far/in/the/distance/it/looked/like/a/toy. The more words a student accurately separates, the higher her silent reading fluency score
d. Silent reading fluency cannot be assessed. It is a private act between the reader and the text and does not invite critique


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