Praxis 2 MS English 5047

Parable
type of traditional literature which is realistic and has a moral

Legend
type of traditional literature which is an exaggerated story about people

Myth
literary sub genre of a story that involves gods and heroes, usually expressing a cultures ideals

Folktale
type of traditional literature that is told in the language of the people, does not need a moral, and main purpose is to entertain

Fairytales
type of traditional literature that has an element of magic, usually follows a pattern, and presents and “ideal”, may contain “magic 3” or “stereotyping”

Fable
type of traditional literature that is non-realistic, has a moral, and animals are often the main character of

Example of a Parable
Jesus- “The Prodigal Son”, “The Good Samaritan”, “The Lost Coin”

Example of a Fable
Aesop- “The Fox and the Crane”, “The Fox and the Crow”

Fairy Tale authors
Charles Perrault, Grimm Brothers, Joseph Jacobs, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Jorgen Moe

noodlehead story
humorous folktale in which the reader can outsmart character(s)

Romanticism
movement in literature during the 18th and 19th centuries that began in Germany and England, emphasized imagination, fancy, freedom, emotion, wildness, beauty of the natural world, rights of individuals, and pastoral life.

Symbolism
movement in literature during the 19th century in France, reacted against the standards of realism, emphasized being bend the material world of the 5 senses, poetic expression of complex feelings

Symbolism authors
Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud

Surrealism
movement in literature in the beginning of the 20th century that features the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions, and non sequitur, aimed to free people from what they saw as false rationality and restrictive customs and structures. Sometimes aligned with anarchists and communists

Surrealism authors
Andre Breton, influenced by Freud’s free association work, dream analysis, and the unconscious to free imagination

Existentialism
movement in literature in the 19th and 20th centuries that emphasized individual existence, freedom, and choice, believed that there is not objective rational basis for moral choice

Existentialism authors
Soren Keirkegaard, Blaise Pascal, Friedrich Neitzsche, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre

Louisa May Alcott
American novelist best known as author of the novel Little Women (1868) Wrote about growing up poor in New England during the Civil War

Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou was an African-American author, poet, dancer, actress and singer. Wrote autobiography I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969). a coming-of-age story that illustrates how strength of character and a love of literature can help overcome racism and trauma.

Ray Bradbury
A contemporary American writer of science fiction short stories and novels which deal with moral dilemas, including The Martian Chronicles (1950) and Fahrenheit 451 (1953)

Sandra Cisneros
A Mexican American author who wrote about her own life and experiences. A famous novel of hers is The House on Mango Street (1984)

Stephen Crane
American novelist, short story writer, poet, journalist, raised in NY and NJ; style and technique: naturalism, realism, impressionism; themes: ideals v. realities, spiritual crisis, fears. wrote Red Badge of Courage (1895) about a soldier in Union Army

Daniel Defoe
An English novelist wrote Robinson Crusoe (1791), an exciting tale about a sailor shipwrecked on a tropical island. This book was a commentary on what it took to survive in the 18th century: entrepreneurial ingenuity and the ability to improvise.

Emily Dickinson
Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was an American poet. Born in Amherst, Massachusetts, to a successful family with strong community ties, she lived a mostly introverted and reclusive life, “Because I could not stop for Death”

Frederick Douglas
(1817-1895) American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published his biography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.

Ralph Waldo Emerson
American essayist, philosopher, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement. Wrote “self reliance” (1888), He was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom.

F. Scott Fitzgerald
American writer famous for his novels and stories, such as The Great Gatsby, capturing the mood of the 1920s. He gave the decade the nickname the “Jazz Age.”

Anne Frank
Dutch-Jewish girl who, with other Jews, hid from the Nazis from 1942 to 1944; she was found and sent to a concentration camp where she died. 1st published in 1952 Diary of a Young Girl

Robert Frost
(1874-1963) American poet, his work was initially published in England before it was published in America. He is highly regarded for his realistic depictions of rural life and his command of American colloquial speech. , “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”, , “Nothing Gold Can Stay”

S. E. Hinton
American writer best known for her young-adult novels set in Oklahoma, especially The Outsiders (1967)

Zora Neale Hurston
African American writer and folklore scholar who played a key role in the Harlem Renaissance. She traveled across the South collecting folk tales, songs & prayers of Black southerners. Her book was called Mules and Men (1935)

John Keats
English Romantic poet. He was one of the main figures of the second generation of Romantic poets along with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley. “On First Looking Into Chapman’s Homer,” “To Autumn,” and “Bright Star, Would I Were Stedfast As Thou Art”

Helen Keller
American author, political activist, lecturer; first deaf-blind person to earn B.A. She wrote The Story of My Life (1903) and The Frost King (1892).

Harper Lee
American author who wrote and won the Pulitzer Prize for “To Kill A Mockingbird” (1960) deals with racism

Madeleine L’Engle
American writer best known for young-adult fiction, particularly the Newbery Medal-winning A Wrinkle in Time (1962) and its sequels

C.S. Lewis
British apologist for the Christian faith and one of the best-known conservative writers of the early 20th century; wrote essays that still convince skeptics of the reality of God; he also wrote “The Chronicles of Narnia” (1950), “The Screwtape Letters”, and “Perelandra”

Jack London
American naturalists who achieved a degree of popular success with his adventure stories The Call of the Wild (1903) and The Sea Wolf (1904), celebrating the triumph of brute force and the will to survive.

Lois Lowry
American writer wrote “The Giver” and “Number the Stars”: more than thirty children’s books and an autobiography. She won the American Library Association annual Newbery Medal for both Number the Stars in 1989 and The Giver in 1993.

Herman Melville
An American writer in the 1800s who drew on his experiences at sea and living on South Pacific islands for material and also wrote “Moby Dick”. In addition, he rejected the optimism of the transcendentalists and felt that man faced a tragic destiny.

George Orwell
English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic. His work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism, and commitment to democratic socialism. 1984 (1949), Animal Farm (1945)

Edgar Allen Poe
American poet, short-story writer, editor and literary critic, and is considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre.

J. D. Salinger
The most popular writer of the 1950s, he wrote “The Catcher and the Rye” and other books about society (particularly people who were self-absorbed), wrote in the Catcher in the Rye of a prep school student, Holden Caulfield who was unable to find any are of society—school, family, friends, city – in which he could feel secure or committed.

William Shakespear
(1564 – 1616) English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the English language; works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet.

Mary Shelley
British Romantic writer, wife of Percy Bysshe Shelley, and author of Frankenstein (1818), a classic allegory of the flaws of Reason and Science.

Percy Bysshe Shelley
one of the major English Romantic poets and is regarded by critics as amongst the finest lyric poets in the English language. “Prometheus Unbound,” (1820) “Ode to the West Wind,” and “To A Skylark”

Gary Soto
Mexican-American Author, poet. Wrote Baseball in April (1990), a collection of short stories (including “Broken Chain”)

Amy Tan
(born in China) But an American writer. Hailed for her depiction of the Chinese-American experience of the late 20th century. Her works explore mother-daughter relationships. Her most well-known work is The Joy Luck Club (1989)

J. R. R. Tolkien
English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit (1937), The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion. Books that taught people to long for truth and goodnes

Mark Twain
American author, also renowned platform lecturer. Used “romantic” type literature with comedy to entertain his audiences. In 1873 along with the help of Charles Dudley Warner he wrote The Gilded Age. This is why the time period is called the “Gilded Age”. The greatest contribution he made to American literature was the way he captured the frontier realism and humor through the dialect his characters use. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884)

Alice Walker
American author, wrote The Color Purple (1982), self-declared feminist and womanist; won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction

H. G. Wells
British science fiction author. His social commentary often examined the class system in England—a system many felt was outdated. Many of the novels he wrote depicted lower-class individuals, such as teachers and women.

Walt Whitman
American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass (1855). He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.

Harlem Renaissance writers
Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes, Countee Culleen

British Romantic writiers
John Keats, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Lord Byron

Metaphysical poets
John Donne, Andrew Marvell, George Herbert

Transcendentalism writers
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau

Old English period
(426-1066) Fall of Rome, barbarians move into Europe. Beowulf, The Wanderer, The Seafarer

Middle English period
(1066-1550) Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, More’s Utopia, Malory’s Le Morte de Arthur and the morality play Everyman

British Renaissance
(1485-1660) world view shifts from religious life to life on earth, development of human potential, many aspects of love; examples include William Shakespeare, John Donne, Christopher Marlowe, Cavalier poets, Metaphysical poets

British Neoclassical period
(1660-1798): Emphasizes reason and logic and stresses harmony, stability, and wisdom. Writers: Jane Austen, Daniel Defoe, John Dryden, and Jonathan Swift.

British Romantic period
Rich in literary criticism and nonfictional prose, Jane Austen, Jean Jacques Rousseau, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, George Gordon, Lord Byron, Percy Shelley, John Keats, Bronte Sisters, George Elliot

American Colonial Period
(1630-1760): Colonial and revolutionary writers: Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and Thomas Paine, William Bradford, Anne Bradstreet, Jonathan Edwards, Captain John Smith.

American Renaissance
(1840s) The writing of the period before the Civil War, A burst of American literature, highlighted by the novels of Herman Melville and Nathaniel Hawthorne; the essays of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller; and the poetry of Walt Whitman. Emphasized emotion and inner feeling and created a more democratic literature, accessible to everyone. Women also contributed literary works.

British Victorian Period
(1840-1900) Examples: Dickens’ “Great Expectations,” Tennyson’s “Poems,” Hardy’s “Tess of the D’Urbervilles” and “Jude the Obscure,” and Browning’s “Sonnets from the “Portuguese.”

American naturalistic period
(1880-1900): 19th Century – A literary movement that claimed to portray life exactly as if it were being examined through a scientist’s microscope. Writers: Frank Norris, John Steinbeck, Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser, Ellen Glasgow and Jack London.

Modernist period (British/American)
(1914-1945) began with WWI traditional notions of humanity and society not so certain anymore; writers experimented with new, innovative techniquesWriters experimented with writing. The writers protested against the nature of society. F. Scott Fitzgerald, T.S. Elliot, Robert Frost, James Joyce

Postmodernist period (British/American)
post WWII, characterized by heavy reliance on techniques like fragmentation, paradox, and questionable narrators, and is often (though not exclusively) defined as a style or trend. Kurt Vonnegut

Stories
Genre of literary text includes the subgenres of adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, myths, science fiction, realistic fiction, allegories, parodies, satire, and graphic novels

Dramas
Genre of literary text includes one-act and multi-act plays, both in written form and on film

Poetry
Genre of literary text includes the subgenres of narrative poems, lyrical poems, free verse poems, sonnets, odes, ballads, and epics

Literary nonfiction
Genre of literary text includes the subgenres of exposition, argument, and functional text in the form of personal essays, speeches, opinion pieces, essays about art or literature, biographies, memoirs, journalism, and historical, scientific, technical, or economic accounts (including digital sources) written for a broad audience

historical fiction
literary sub genre of stories: a story that is set in the past, usually drawn on real events, but not necessarily real people.

mystery
literary sub genre of a stories: a story of suspense dealing with a puzzling crime

science fiction
literary sub genre of stories: story that deals with current or future technology and its advances or threats

allegory
literary sub genre of stories: a story in which each aspect of the story has a symbolic meaning outside the tale itself.

parody
literary sub genre of stories: a story in which a text or performance is imitating or mocking a person or thing

satire
literary sub genre of stories: a story that makes fun of social conventions (norms)

narrative poem
literary sub genre of poetry: a poem that tells a story

lyrical poem
literary sub genre of poetry: a poem that does not tell a story but expresses the personal feelings or thoughts of a speaker.

free verse poem
literary sub genre of poetry: a poem composed of either rhymed or unrhymed lines that have no set fixed metrical pattern

sonnet
literary sub genre of poetry: fixed form of lyric poetry that consists of fourteen lines, usually written in iambic pentameter.

ode
literary sub genre of poetry: a poem in which a person expresses a strong feeling of love or respect for someone or something

ballad
literary sub genre of poetry: a short poem comprised of short verses intended to be sung or recited

epic poem
literary sub genre of poetry: A long, narrative poem that is written in an elevated style and that recounts the deeds of a heroic character who embodies the values of a particular society

exposition
literary non-fiction sub genre: a systematic interpretation or explanation (usually written) of a specific topic

argument
literary non-fiction sub genre: A single assertion or a series of assertions presented and defended by the writer

functional text
literary non-fiction sub genre: writing or text that is used in everyday life such, as signs, directions, letters, and manuals.

novel
literary sub genre stories: an extended narrative

implicit theme
theme is suggested by the author

explicit theme
theme is stated by the author

plot
the story line, usually the element that keeps on e interested in the reading. Has a definite order, involves conflict, and has a pattern

sensationalism
(related to plot) the use of emotionally charged words, expressions, or events in order to provoke a strong reaction in the reader

open denouement
(related to plot) An ending with loose ends and unresolved matters

closed denouement
(related to plot) ending that ties up everything neatly and explains all unanswered questions. Combines with setting to create the structure of a story

setting
time and place in which a story or book occurs, important to juvenile literature, must be believable. combines with plot to create structure of a story

structure of a story
plot + setting

backdrop setting
not essential to the plot

integral setting
essential to the plot

figurative setting
A setting that simply serves as an illustration.

character
the personalities who make many books live on for many years. Ex: Jay Gatsby, Tom Sawyer…

round character
fully described or revealed

flat character
not fully developed, described, or revealed

connotation
the impression or feeling a word gives beyond its exact meaning

denotation
a words precise meaning

alliteration
Repetition of initial consonant sounds in two or more words in a sentence: steep, straight stretch

consonance
Repetition of a consonant sound within two or more words in close proximity: the coal-preparation plant in Caretta was complete

assonance
Repetition of a vowel sound within two or more words in close proximity: We are right for the fight tonight, we’ll fight for the green and white

onomatopeia
the sound of the word imitates the sound it represents: Pow, smack, splat!

extended metaphor
A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work.

hyperbole
A figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor. Ex: “I told you a million times!”

masculine rhyme
A rhyme ending on the final stressed syllable.

feminine rhyme
a rhyme of two syllables, one stressed and one unstressed, as “waken” and “forsaken” and “audition” and “rendition.” Feminine rhyme is sometimes called double rhyme.

synthesizing information
reading strategy: Involves combining new information with existing knowledge to form an original idea or interpretation.

repairing understanding
reading strategy: If confusion disrupts meaning, readers need to stop and clarify their understanding. Readers use a variety of strategies to “fix up” comprehension when meaning goes awry.

confirming
reading strategy: As students read and after they read, they can verify the predictions they originally made.

semantics
the meanings of words and phrases in a particular context.

syntax
the way in which words are put together to form phrases, clauses, or sentences

literal comprehension
The lowest level of understanding. It involves reading the lines and understanding exactly what is on the page. Students can repeat or paraphrase what they have read.

interpretive or inferential comprehension
second level of understanding – requires reading between the lines – all answers are not physically found – requires figuring out the answer…draw conclusions, inferencing, generalizing, speculating, predicting, summarizing

critical comprehension
One of the highest levels of understanding. Requires readers to think beyond the printed page. Ex. indicating whether text is true or false, distinguishing between fact and opinion, detecting propaganda, judging whether the author is qualified to write the text, recognizing bias and fallacies, identifying stereotypes, making assumptions.

creative comprehension
requires readers to respond emotionally to something they read…thinking of another way of treating a situation, another way of solving a problem, speculating whether plot could have occurred in another place or time

universal grammar
Innate linguistic knowledge which consists of a set of principles common to all languages. (Chomsky)

prelinguistic stage
1st of Chomsky’s stages of language acquisition. Filled with silence, cooing, and crying.

holophrastic stage
Chomsky’s second stage of language acquisition: in this stage the child speaks one-word sentences

two-word stage
beginning about age 2, Chomsky’s 3rd stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements

telegraphic stage
Chomsky’s 4th stage of language acquisition, when child speaks like a telegram– “go car”– using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words

intermediate development stage
Chomsky’s 5th Period of language acquisition following the telegraphic stage and prior to the adult stage, very similar to telegraphic

adult stage
final stage of Chomsky’s language acquistion

diction
A speaker or writer’s choice of words (formal, informal, colloquial, full of slang, poetic, ornate, plain, abstract, concrete, etc.); diction has a powerful effect on tone

omniscient point of view
a narrator who knows all about the characters and actions

objective point of view
the writer only tells what is happening without voicing an opinion and never revealing what the characters are thinking or feeling

first-person singular point of view
the story unfolds through the eyes of one central character (I, me, my)

third-person point of view
The story is told from the perspective of a narrator outside the story. (he, she, it, they)

second-person point of view
the narrator addresses the reader directly using the pronoun “you”, can be confusing to the reader

wordplay
humorous use of alternate definitions, puns, or homonyms

pun
humerous wordplay in which the two meanings of a word or two similar-sounding words are deliberately confused. Ex: The tarantula found his partner online. He spider on the web.

personal pronoun
A pronoun that refers to the one speaking (first person), the one spoken to (second person), or the person spoken about (third person) Ex: i, you, he, she, it

relative pronoun
Introduces a subordinate clause. Ex: who, which, that, whose, whom

interrogative pronoun
Introduces a question. Ex: who, what, when, where, how

demonstrative pronoun
Points out a person, place, thing, or an idea. Ex: this, that, these, those

indefinite pronoun
refers to a person, a place, a thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named. Ex: one, any, each, anyone, somebody, all

reciprocal pronoun
indicate a mutual or reciprocal action by the subjects of the verb. Ex: each other & one another

intensive pronoun
emphasizes a noun or another pronoun. Ex: myself, yourself, himself

reflexive pronoun
Refers to the subject and directs the action of the verb back to the subject. Ex: myself, yourself, himself

descriptive adjective
names a quality of an object: BLUE book

limiting adjective
an adjective that answers “how many? which one?

possessive adjective
show possession or ownership. , my, your, his, her, its, our, their

demonstrative adjective
tells which one; examples: this, that, these, and those

interrogative adjective
used in questions; the interrogative adjectives are what, which, and who’s. Ex: which dog is yours?

preposition
A word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word. Bill drew a circle (AROUND the house)

coordinating conjunction
FANBOYS=for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

subordinating conjunction
a conjunction (like ‘since’ or ‘that’ or ‘who’) that introduces a dependent clause

modifier
A word, phrase, or clause that functions as an adjective or adverb to limit or qualify the meaning of another word or word group.

phrase
group of words without a subject and predicate

semicolon
Placed between 2 related independent clauses, before conjunctive adverbs (however & therefore) & sentence containing series containing internal punctuation divide elements with semicolons (Arizona, 08765; New Jersey, 07424)

colon
used to introduce a list, to separate independent clauses when second clause is a restatement of the first, introduce a formal appositive, separate introductory words from a quotation

euphemism
An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant. Ex: passed away instead of died

doublespeak
Using evasive/ambiguous language to sugar coat something. Ex: preowned instead of second-hand or used

argumentative writing strategies
analogy, extended metaphor, allusion (reference to historical, literary, or general familiar character or event)

writing style
The distinctive use of language by a writer; style includes both syntax (sentence structure) and diction (word choice).

writing tone
the writers attitude toward the writing itself; toward the subject; toward the people, places, time, and events

Activate prior knowledge
reading strategy: readers pay more attention when they relate to the text and comprehend better when they think about the connections they make between the text, their lives, and the larger world

predicting
reading strategy: using questioning to keep readers engaged. When readers ask questions (thoughtful reading), even before they read, they clarify understanding and forge ahead to make meaning

visualizing
reading strategy: active readers create visual images based on the words they read in the text.

drawing inference
reading strategy: reader takes what they know and combine it with clues from the text to think ahead and make a judgement, discern a theme, or speculate about what is to come

determine important ideas
reading strategy: differentiate between less important ideas and key ideas that are central to the meaning of the text

reflecting
reading strategy: students think about, or reflect on what they have just read. Reflection can be simply thinking, discussion, or writing

story mapping
(webbing) making graphic representations of stories that make clear the specific relationships of story elements. Helps students think about a passage and its structure

metacognition
“Thinking about thinking” or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one’s performance on that task, separates good readers from struggling readers

miscue analysis
process of assessing the strategies that students use in their reading

fishbone organizer
is helpful for illustrating cause and effect. The result or effect is written along a straight line and the causes are listed on lines which slant up or down from it. These can be further detailed individually.

informal reading inventory
Student reads aloud while teacher notes miscues. Student then answers comprehension questions. Then the student is timed while reading the passages silently and answering comprehension questions.

receptive language
language that is spoken or written by others and received by an individual that is listening or reading. The receiving person must decode or get meaning from the spoken word or written symbols.

cognitive language
language that is received, processed into memory, integrated with knowledge already integrated, and made a part of knowledge of the individual from which new ideas and concepts can be generated

expressive language
communication through speaking, writing, and or gestures. Selecting words, formulating them into ideas, and producing them through speaking, writing, or gesturing. Involves word retrieval, rules of grammar (syntax), word and sentence structure (morphology), and word meaning (semantics)

literature circles
Students read common texts and have discussions about the shared reading to increase critical thinking and response to text. Often with set roles (discussion director, mind image creator, question asker, etc.)

anticipation guides
Sets of declaritive statements related to materials about to be read that are designed to stimulate thinking and discussion, motivate students and help them to predict what will happen in a text

cueing systems
used by the reader to draw on or gain meaning from text; The phonological, semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic information that students rely on as they read.

double entry journals
A journal with two columns – in the left column the student writes a quote from the book and in the right column the student reflects on the quote.

phonics instruction
teaching the relationship between letters and sounds and how to use them to read and spell words

questioning the author
Teacher stops during reaing to ask questions. Children engage in simulated dialogues with the authors.

reciprocal teaching
Includes four main reading strategies for comprehending text: Prediticing, Questioning, Clarifying, Summarizing; students take turns assuming the role of teacher; group effort among teacher and students to bring meaning to text

semantic feature analysis
A graphic organizer using a grid to compare a series of words or other items on a number of characteristics.

collaborative writing
instructional approach in which students work together to plan, draft, revise, and edit compositions

process writing
An approach to writing where learners are encouraged to brainstorm, plan, draft, re-draft, review, and “publish” their written work.

RAFT
a writing strategy that helps students understand their ROLE as a writer, the AUDIENCE they will address, the varied FORMAT for writing, and the TOPIC they’ll be writing about

3-2-1 prompt
3 facts
2 questions
1 personal connection

stream of consciousness
a style of writing that portrays the inner (often chaotic) workings of a character’s mind.

condescension (tone)
when the writer talks down to the reader

didacticism (tone)
when the writer addresses the readers as if they must learn something

verbal irony (tone)
when there is a contrast between what is said and what is meant

situational irony (tone)
when there is a discrepancy between what happens and what the reader expects to happen.

dramatic irony (tone)
where there is a contrast between what a character bees or says and what the reader understands to be true

tone
the authors attitude toward the writing, reader, subject, people, places, or events in a work. Can include: condescension, didacticism, irony, humor, parody, sentimentality

parody (tone)
humous or ridiculing imitation of something else

sentimentality (tone)
the excessive use of feeling or emotion

perspective
the scene as viewed through the eyes/mind of the chosen character. The story, however, can be told from any one of several points-of-view regardless of the perspective chosen. Can also include dialogue Ex: first-person…

The yearling
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings 1939, A book written about a young boy who raises a baby deer.

Island of the Blue Dolphins
Scott O’Dell, The Ghalas-at tribe lives on an island until a group of hunters comes and kills over half of the people. Karana, an Indian girl is left without her parents and must learn to survive on her own.

Julie of the Wolves
Jean Craighead George, a young eskimo girl runs away and lives with wolves. She tries to rejoin culture, but runs away again. She eventually goes to town to live with her dad.

The Call of the Wild
Jack London, a pampered dog (Buck) adjusts to the harsh realities of life in the North as he struggles with his recovered wild instincts and finds a master (John Thorton) who treats him right; novel, adventure story, setting late 1890s

Madeleine L’Engle
Wrote A Wrinkle in Time, A Swiftly Tilting Planet, A Wind in the Door, The Small Rain, 24 Days before Christmas and other known novels.

Animal Farm
George Orwell, A group of animals mount a successful rebellion against the farmer who rules them, but their dreams of equality for all are ruined when one pig seizes power; , Fable in which main characters represent political personages in the conflict of political systems

Watership Down
Richard Adams, heroic fantasy novel about a small group of British rabbits; Fiver, a young runt rabbit who is a seer, receives a frightening vision of his warren’s imminent destruction

quatrains
four lines of poetry, usually linked together by rhyme scheme

blank verse
Poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter

ballad stanzas
ABCB or ABAB, four line stanzas. Tells of love, death, supernatural.

old english
Anglo-Saxon language spoken from approximately 450 to 1066 A.D. (important: Beowulf)

middle english
1066-1485 English that was formalized after the Norman invasion. Injected some French into English, 18. Used in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales

elizabethan english
The language of Shakespeare’s era; thy thou thine thy

Roll of Thunder Hear my Cry
Mildred Taylor. The Logan family lives in Mississippi in the 1930’s. Times are tough, especially for a black family in the segregated South. Despite all odds, the Logans instill in their children determination and strong values. Cassie and her siblings are taught to stand up for what they believe despite the dangers. It provides a realistic view of racism in the 1930’s and 1940’s.

split infinitive
an infinitive with an adverb between ‘to’ and the verb (e.g., ‘to boldly go’)

false analogy
An analogy can illustrate a point, but cannot prove anything., “You have to treat students like nails: they don’t work unless you hit them.”

ad hominem attack
a personal attack on the character or other traits of one’s opponent rather than an argument against his/her ideas.

present participle
A present participle is a Verb expressing present action plus ‘ing’ used as an adjective or a verb.

linking verb
Also referred to as “to be” verb, it helps describe a subject by connecting it to a noun or adjective (subject complement). Include “look”,”seem”,”appear”, and “become” as well as the “to be” verbs “am”, “are”, “is”, etc.

comma splice
A comma placed at the end of a sentence rather than a period.

glittering generality
a logical fallacy, Uses attractive, but vague, words that embody ideals such as: freedom, fame, justice, respect. This technique seeks to evoke emotions without making any commitments.

straw man
a logical fallacy, Attacking a weaker more extreme argument rather than the one that actually exists: often occurs by taking things out of context

interrogative sentence
A sentence that asks a question

semantic cueing
Determining the meaning of the word, phrase, or sentence and determining what the passage is about

phonological cueing
The letter sound relationships in written language.

pragmatic cueing
The social and cultural aspects of language

doubletalk
an inconsistency or contradiction when the user is very aware of what they are saying (all animals are equal but some animals are more equal than others)

epigram
A concise but ingenious, witty, and thoughtful statement.

jargon
nonsensical talk; specialized language

couplet
A pair of rhymed lines that may or may not constitute a separate stanza in a poem.

soliloquy
A dramatic or literary form of discourse in which a character talks to himself or herself or reveals his or her thoughts without addressing a listener.

parallel syntax
repetition of worse or phrases to emphasize a point.

imperative sentence
A sentence that requests or commands.

John Donne
considered the archetype of metaphysical poetry; “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning”

logos
An appeal based on logic or reason

ethos
beliefs or character of a group

pathos
Appeal to emotion

topos
suggests settings, characters, and themes that appear and reappear in literatur

logical fallacy
False reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate.

non sequitur
A statement that does not follow logically from evidence

post hoc
“after this, therefore because of this;” saying that event A cause event B simply because B followd A

syllogism
A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.

Joan Didion
Joan Didion is an American author best known for her novels and her literary journalism. Her novels and essays explore the disintegration of American morals and cultural chaos, where the overriding theme is individual and social fragmentation.

E.B. White
E.B. White was an American writer. He was a contributor to The New Yorker magazine and a co-author of the English language style guide, The Elements of Style, which is commonly known as “Strunk & White”.

foils
a pair of characters, events, settings, or other literary elements which are set up in artistic contrast to one another in order to highlight their significant differences

epistolary novel
A novel composed wholly or primarily of letters. Unfolds through the written documents passed from person to person.

slant rhyme
Rhyme in which either the vowels or the consonants of stressed syllables are identical, as in eyes, light; years, yours.

Ben Johnson
Renaissance poet, (wrote sentimental poems) “Song: to Celia”, “On My First Son”, , Most important writer of his age after Shakespeare

epithet
A word or phrase preceding or following a name which serves to describe the character. Ex: Alexander the Great. **Often it is a negative description though!

fricative
a consonant sound made by passing a continuous stream of air through a narrow passage in the vocal tract.