Praxis II-Special Education

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Last updated: May 29, 2019
Define: language
The systematic use of sounds, signs, or written symbols for the purpose of communication or expression.

Define: Receptive Language
Ability to understand and comprehend information that is presented
Define: Expressive Language
Ability to communicate thoughts, feelings, and ideas through words, gestures, sign systems, assistive devices, and so on.
Define: Articulation
using movements of the mouth to make speech sounds
Define: Pragmatics
Knowledge of successful and appropriate language use, such as in conversation.
Define: Semantics
the meaning that language communicates; it governs vocabulary development
Define: Syntax 
A system of combining words into sentences with rules that govern how words work together in phrases, clauses, and sentences.

 What is th most significant domain that affects all areas of development?     
How can the Cognitive domain change?
                Through maturity, practice, & normal aging. 
 Name: Humanism theorist            
Name: Behaviorism theorist      
Name: Psychosocial theorist
Name: Social Learning theorist  
Name: Multiple Intelligences theorist    
Name: Moral Reasoning theorist
Name: Psychoanalytical theorist
Name: Cognitive theorist
Name: Socio-Cultural theorist   
Define: Proprioceptive 
 Proprioceptive is the sense of the relative position of neighboring parts of the body. 
Describe: Adaptive Behavior
Composite of abilities based on child’s age and the cultural mores of the family.

Are normally acquired during daily routines. E.g.: feeding, dressing, and toileting.

Mastering Adaptive Behavior can:
 Build the student’s self-esteem by learning to function more independently.


Describe this Exceptionality Type: Medical/Physical
Includes problems related to diseases, illnesses, trauma, genetics, fine & gross motor, sensory input, and sensory perception.
Describe this Exceptionality Type: Educational   
 This includes cognitive and meta-cognitive deficits, low academic achievement, poor memory, attention problems, hyperactivity, and perceptual disorders. 
Describe this Exceptionality Type: Social
This includes affective behaviors, poor social skills, poor self-concept, poor motivation, and debilitating mood states.

Describe this Exceptionality Type: Psychological
 This includes various behaviors, adaptive behavior deficits, disruptive behavior, and withdrawal. 
List disability categories included under federal law (6-21 years)

  •        Autism
  • Deaf-Blindness
  •  Emotional Disturbance/Behavioral Disorder
  • Hearing Impairment
  •  Mental Retardation
  • Orthopedic Impairment
  •  Other Health Impairment
  • Specific Learning Disability
  • Speech/Language Impairment
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  •  Visual Impairment
  • Gifted/Talented 

Summarize disability category: “Autism”
 A syndrome related to neurological function that is evidenced by deficits in social interactions, communications, and patterns of behavior; associated with pervasive developmental disorder`
Summarize disability category: “Deaf-Blindness”
 Includes the combination of both auditory and visual disabilities that are the cause of severe communication deficits and other learning problems; individual may need a combination of supplementary assistance. 
Summarize disability category: “Emotional Disturbance/Behavioral Disorder”   
  This category refers to conditions that exhibit two or more of the following: an inability to learn, an inability to maintain relationships, or the exhibition of inappropriate behaviors, pervasive moods, or a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears. 
Summarize disability category: “Hearing Impairmen”
A condition that may adversely affect the educational performance of students and includes deafness and hard of hearing.
Summarize disability category: “Mental Retardation”     
 Defines an individual with significant sub average general intellectual functioning concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior manifesting during the developmental period and adversely affecting performance. 
Summarize disability category: “Multiple Disabilities”    
  A combination of concomitant impairments (e.g.

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mental retardation-vision impairment) that causes severe educational conditions that cannot be accommodated in special education programs for only one disability. 

Summarize disability category: “Orthopedic Impairment”           
   A physical impairment, caused by such conditions as genetic anomalies, diseases, and trauma, which adversely affect a student’s educational performance. 
Summarize disability category: “Other Health Impairment”     
     Related to diseases or chronic health conditions a student with limited strength, vitality, or alertness that adversely affects a student’s educational performance.


Summarize disability category: “Specific Learning Disability”       
  This refers to a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language and may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do math. 
Summarize disability category: “Speech/Language Impairment” 
               Communication disorders that affect the educational performance in an adverse manner, including stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairments, or voice impairments. 
Summarize disability category: “Traumatic Brain Injury”
 An acquired injury to the brain caused by external physical force that results in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairments that adversely affects educational performance and does not include brain injuries that are congenital, generative, or birth induced. 
Summarize disability category: “Visual Impairment”     
    Includes any impairment of vision (totally blind, functionally blind, and low vision) that, even with correction, adversely affects a student’s educational performance. 
Prevalence of Autism?
   20-60: 10,000 of all children 
Prevalence of: Communication Disorder
 18 – 20 % 
Prevalence of: Emotional Disturbance/Behavioral Disorder (EB/BD)        
 33 % of school population, 10% requiring specific assistance,3 % identified w/problems significant enough to require direct special education services. 
Prevalence of:Gifted/Talented
                3 – 5 % of all school-age students who are two standard-deviations above the norm.10 – 15 % considered highly-talented. 
Prevalence of:Hearing Impairment       

2 %; May be under-reported b/c many may also be identified having other disabilities.

Prevalence of:Learning Disability         
   50 % (3 million) of the school-age population. 
Prevalence of:Mental Retardation
 10% of Spec. Ed. Population 1 % of total population 
Prevalence of:Other Health or Physical Disability (OHI)
  8 – 9 % of the special education population receiving services` 
Prevalence of:Multiple Disabilities  
       No specific definition to base this category 
Prevalence of: Traumatic Brain Injury
Very few receive special education services under this category.
Prevalence of:Visual Impairment      
      0.4 % of children; very few need services.


Causes/Prevention of: Autism
   Not a specific known cause. May be related to neurobiological conditions, abnormal brain development, genetics, multiple biological causes, and environmental factors. 
Causes/Prevention of: Emotional Disturbance/Behavioral Disorder;;;;;;;;
;;2 major areas may contribute to these disorders: biological factors brain disorders, genetics, temperament) and environmental factors (home, community, school).;
Causes/Prevention of: Hearing Impairment
Many causes, but the more common are genetic factors, illness, prematurity, and disease, noise-induced.
Causes/Prevention of: Mental Retardation;;;;;;;
;; Causes classified as biomedical, environmental, or unknown and that result from factors that occur in one of three stages: prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal.;
Causes/Prevention of: Orthopedic Impairment
;Primarily related to illness, disease, trauma, accident, or injury.


Causes/Prevention of: Other Health Impairment;
Primarily related to illness, disease, trauma, accident, or injury.;
Causes/Prevention of: Specific Learning Disability;;;;;;;;;
;;; Cause is often unknown; however, the four most prevalent known causes are brain damage, heredity, biochemical imbalance, and environmental.;
Causes/Prevention of: Speech/Language Impairment
;;; Many possible causes, most likely attributed to damage or dysfunction of a specific part of the body, environmental factors, cognitive impairments, hearing loss, brain injury, or disease.


Causes/Prevention of: Speech/Language Impairment;;
;;Many possible causes, most likely attributed to damage or dysfunction of a specific part of the body, environmental factors, cognitive impairments, hearing loss, brain injury, or disease.;
Causes/Prevention of: Traumatic Brain Injury;;
;; Primarily related to illness, disease, trauma, accident, or injury.;
Causes/Prevention of: Visual Impairment
;; Damages or changes in the optical, muscular, or nerve system, which may be related to diseases, trauma, malnutrition, or genetics.;
List 10 ways to prevent disabilities;;;;;;;;;;

  1. ;Proper and early medical care
  2. Appropriate mother ; child nutrition
  3. Advances in medical treatments
  4. Genetic counseling for families
  5. Testing such as PKU or amniocentesis
  6. Environmental improvements
  7. Early intervention programs
  8. Parent training programs
  9. Elimination of childhood diseases, traumas, and accidents
  10. Availability of vaccinations ; immunizations.


The purpose of IDEA;;;;
1. To ensure all children with disabilities are guaranteed a free and appropriate public education (FAPE).;2. To assist all states in establishing early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities.;3. To ensure that educators and parents have the necessary tools to improve the education for all children with disabilities.;4. To assess the effectiveness of the education for children with disabilities.


6 major principles of IDEA;;;;;;;;
;;; 1. Zero reject (Child Find system)2. Protection in the evaluation process (non-bias testing)3. Free ; Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)4.

Least Restrictive Environment5. Due Process Procedures (procedural safeguards)6.; Parent ; Student participation (Shared decision making);

summary: Section 504;;
;;Extends civil rights to individuals with disabilities focused on prohibiting discrimination in education, employment, and other community settings; requiring compliance by any recipient of federal funds even though these requirements are not monetarily supported by the federal government.;
Summary: ADA(American Disabilities Act-1990)
;Based on Section 504, it extends civil rights to individuals with disabilities in private sector employment, public services, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications.

; These employment and public service entities must accommodate persons with disabilities in an appropriate and nondiscriminatory manner.;

Summary: NCLB(No Child Left Behind)
Primary goal is for all children to be proficient in all subject matter by 2014 and imposes a requirement that all teachers must be “highly qualified.”;
Four Key Principles of NCLB;;;;;;;
;;1.; Stronger accountability through district and state testing for every student.

2.; Increased flexibility to schools for use of federal funds.3.; Additional options for parents regarding the education of their child.4.; Focus on curriculum and instructional methods with scientifically researched and proven effects.

Summary: FERPA(Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act)
Although not a specific education law, it affects schools, education programs, and those persons associated with students who have exceptional needs.; This federal law protects the privacy of all students’ educational records and applies to any and all schools receiving federal funds.


Summary: Gifted and Talented Children’s Education Act-1978;;
;; Allows for funding to support the exceptional needs of students in the areas of identification, education, and programming.;
Summary: Education Consolidation Act – 1982;
;;; Merged the federal Office of Gifted and Talented with other federal programs and states received block grants to determine which programs and students to support.;
Jacob K. Javits Gifted and Talented Student Education Act;;;;;;;;;;; 1988
Federal funds provided specifically to students who are considered economically disadvantaged, who demonstrate limited English proficiency or have a disability while also identified as gifted or talented.;
Describe:Brown v. Board of Education1954
;Based on the segregation of students according to race, it was tried at the Supreme Court who ordered that education must be on equal terms for all children.;
describe: Hobson v.


Determined the tracking system for regular and special education students based on intelligence scores was discriminatorily unconstitutional for some populations of students and could not be used.;
Describe: Mills v. Board of Education1972
Determined that financial problems cannot be a reason for the lack of appropriate programs to children with disabilities;
Describe: Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens v. the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania1972
Established the right for all children with mental retardation to a free public education;
Describe: Armstrong v. Kline1979
; Ordered schools to provide extended school year services for students with disabilities who may regress over long periods without attending formal school programs.;
Describe: Larry P.

v. Riles1979

; Ruled that IQ tests could not be used as the primary or sole basis of placing students in special programs.;
Board of Education of the Hudson School District v. Rowley1982
;;Upheld that each child with a disability has the right to an individualized program and supportive services deemed appropriate and necessary.;
Describe: Abrahamson v. Hershman1983
;;Ruled that the training and education for a student with multiple disabilities required in private residential placement would be supported through district funds.;
describe: Department of Ed. v.

Katherine D.1984

; Ruled homebound instruction for a student with multiple health problems did not comply with the LRE and required the student be placed in a class with non-disabled children and receive the necessary related medical services
Describe: Irving Independent School District v. Tatro1984
;;Forced the school to provide non-physician required medical services to allow a physically impaired student to attend school.;
Describe: Honig v. Doe1988
;; Ruled that students with disabilities may not be excluded for misbehavior that is disability-related, but services could cease if the behavior was not related to the disability.;
Describe: Timothy v. Rochester School District1989
; Upheld that all children with disabilities must be provided a free and appropriate public education without exception
Describe:Zobrest v.

Catalina School District1993

; Determined that a student in a parochial school should be provided the assistance of a related service pertaining to the disability and that these findings did not violate the constitution of the separation of church and state.;
Describe:Oberty v. Board of Ed.1993
; Ruled to support a family preference to educate a child with mental retardation in the general education classroom
describe: Foley v. Special School District of St. Louis County 1998
Affirmed that public schools are not obligated to provide special education services if parents choose to place their child in a private school.
describe: Cedar Rapids v.

Garrett F.1999

;;Ruled that medical services necessary to a student with a disability to access and benefit from special education must be provided by the school as long as the service does not require a physician.;
List: Conceptual Approaches to Teaching

  • Cognitive
  • Constructionist
  • Psychodynamic
  • Behavioral
  • Sociological
  • Ecological
  • Therapeutic
  • Medical

; Coordinationa simple form of collaboration that includes communication and cooperation so student services are ensured delivery.; Professionals may not directly share their expertise, information, or ideas with one another, but they do provide updates on the progress of the student.;
Describe: Consultation
Consultationis the process in which professionals work with one another by directly communicating and sharing expertise to improve services to students.

; Teachers and other professionals share strategies and methods to help the student access the educational program

Describe Co-teaching
; Co-teaching;is; an effective tool for inclusion settings.; When two or more teachers (general ed. and special ed., one leading other assisting);work together to plan activities, deliver instruction, and assess students, additional supports are provided to all students in the classroom, thereby improving achievement.

Describe:Multidisciplinary Team;;;;
;;;;;;;; Professionals with defined roles, working independently of one another.; May exhibit lack of communication or understanding of the student’s needs
Describe:Interdisciplinary Team
 Members conduct independent assessments, but works together to promote communication and collaboration
Describe:Transdisciplinary Team
   Team delivers services in an integrated approach across disciplines.  Members work together sharing roles and responsibilities unlike other teams, who work in isolation. 
List: Continuum of LRE  
General Education classroom (inclusive model)General education classroom (consultative model)Co-Teaching setting (collaborative model)Resource room (pull-in model, integrated model)Self-contained program (separate, segregated model)Separate school (private setting)Residential facilityHomebound placementHospital Setting
Describe/list:Related Services
   may include:

  • Transportation
  • Speech therapy
  • Physical therapy
  • Occupational therapy
  • Counseling
  • Behavior coach
  • Paraprofessional


  Instructional supports or services necessary to access instruction or the learning environment and to demonstrate individual knowledge. 
  Include actual changes made to the curriculum, to the environment, or to the expectations of an instructional task in order to meet the student’s specific needs.;
;Supports may make changes in how the student access the environment or in instructional delivery.; Examples typically are physical objects.;
Describe:Due Process (parents)
;;;Due Process;is allowable under IDEA and emphasizes certain rights for children with disabilities and their parents (procedural safeguards).

Describe:Due process (schools)
Due Process;ensures that schools follow the procedures set forth in the law for assessment, identification, placement, instructional services, and related or supplementary services.;
Describe:Behavioral-based curriculum
;;Demonstrates student interactions in the environment in order to instruct students in functional and age appropriate skills;
Describe:Cognitive-developmental curriculum
;;Provides age appropriate activities that are discovery-based and interactive, such as DAP.;
Describe:Social Skills Curriculum
;;Improves social skills areas such as engaging in personal interactions, following directions, handling situations, increasing self-competence, and utilizing appropriate behaviors.;
Describe:Functional curriculum
;;helps develop knowledge and skills to support independence in school, community, employment, personal, social, and daily living situations.;
List: 7 essential components of an IEP;
;; 1. Statement of present levels of educational performance pertaining to disability.2. Statement of measurable annual goals and may include objectives.

3.; Description of the method to measure progress4.; Statement of related services, supplementary aids, and services5.

; Explanation of the extent of involvement in general education programs.6.; Statement of accommodations and participation in state and district testing.7.; Description of the date, frequency, location, and duration of services.

What does an IFSP do?
;; Outlines family goals, identifies the service providers, and establishes the specific services.;
Define:Authentic learning
;; Instruction using real-world projects and activities to allow students to discover and explore in a more relevant manner.;
Define:Cloze procedure
;;;The use of semantic and syntactic clues to aid in completing sentences.


Define: Concept generalization
Concept generalization is the ability for students to demonstrate concept knowledge by applying the information to their settings without prompts from teacher.
Define:Contingent teaching;
;;; a strategy for helping a student and eventually fading out the support as he gains mastery.
Define: diagnostic-prescriptive method
Individualizing instruction to develop strengths and remediate weaknesses.
Define:facilitated groups
;;Students engage in active learning with lessons designed and overseen by the teacher but managed by the students.;
Define:Guided practice;
;; providing opportunities to gain knowledge by offering cues, prompts, or added sequential information.


Define:mediated scaffolding;;
;;a procedure that provides cues and prompts, while gradually removing them so students can perform and respond independently.;
;; A program technique to teach students to overcome an exceptionality through training and education;
Marianne Frostig did what?;;;;;
;;; Developed materials designed to improve visual-perceptual performance and schools focused on cooperative and work-study programs.;
Samuel Kirk published…;;;;;;;;;;;;;ITPA is and does what?;;;
;Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA);;Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities; used to identify students with learning disabilities.;
The term: “Learning Disability” was first coined by.


;;;;; Samuel Kirk;
What is “the zone of proximal development?”
;; The range between what a child is capable of doing independently and a task that needs assistance.;; A Vygotsky contribution to developmental theory;;
What does Cognitive Theory emphasize?;;;;;;;
;;;;; The mental abilities in order to understand how children think and learn.; Problem solving.;
4 notable Learning Disability professional organizations
; – Learning Disabilities Association– National Center for L.

D.s– Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities– Council for Exceptional Children-Division for Learning Disabilities

List 10 L.D. intervention strategies
;1.; Mastery model of specialized instruction2.; Direct Instruction methods3.; Environmental adjustments4.

; Accommodations and modifications5.; Special Equipment or devices6.; Peer Tutoring7.

; Paraprofessional assistance8.; Special Education services9.; Medications10.; Related services

8 common definitions that are used to define “Learning Disabilities”
;;;;;;;; 1.; Difficulty with academics and learning tasks2.; Discrepancy between potential and achievement.

3.; Uneven growth patterns and psychological processing deficits.4.

; Cause may be due to a central nervous system dysfunction.5.; Possess perceptual problems.

6.; May have minimal brain dysfunction or brain injury.7.; Problems exist across a person’s life span.8.  Exclusionary of other causes.

What year did the first definition of learning disability emerge?And under what mandate? 
        1975; Education for All Handicapped Children 
Explain the 2 main components to determine eligibility for a student with a learning disability.         
  1.  The student does not achieve at the proper age and ability levels in one or more specific areas when provided with appropriate learning experiences.2.  The student has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in one or more of these seven areas (oral expression, listening comprehension, written expression, basic reading skills, reading comprehension, mathematics calculation, and mathematics reasoning). 
What is ICLD and what did it do?   
            Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities (ICLD);Developed a three-component definition for the condition of a learning disability.


The three elements that define the federal definition of L.D. 
     1. Difficulties in listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, mathematics, or social skills.2.

  Can occur concomitantly with other conditions (socioenvironmental influences and A.D.D.

s)3.  are intrinsic to the individual and are presented and are presumed to be caused by central nervous system dysfunction. 

Three criteria most often used to determine whether a student has a learning disability include:             

there must be a severe discrepancy between the student’s intellectual ability and the student’s academic achievement. 2.  The difficulties that the student is exhibiting may not be the result of other known learning problems, such as hearing problems, vision problems, educational disadvantage, among others listed in federal law. 3.

  The student requires special education services directly related to the specific type of learning disability in order to access the general education programs and be successful in school. 

Define: Dyslexia             
  a disability of language in which the individual has problems understanding written words (reading) 
  a disability in the area of mathematics in which the individual has trouble solving arithmetic problems, understanding math concepts, or remembering facts. 
 A writing disability in which the individual has problems with writing
    A form of the disability in which the brain messages are not processed well.  This may cause problems with speech or motor control. 
Define:Nonverbal Learning Disability 
   a neurological disorder that originates in the right hemisphere of the brain and may cause problems with visual-spatial, organizational, evaluative, intuitive, and holistic processing functions, as well as interpersonal skills.

  These individuals have problems with social relationships, poor self-concept, poor social perceptions, a lack of social judgment, and difficulty perceiving other’s emotions.;

define:Specific Learning Disability;;;;;;;;;;
;A neurological disorder pertaining to the ability to understand or use language spoken or written, expressive or receptive, and that may manifest through an inability to listen, think, speak, write, spell, or do math calculations.;
A L.D.

is considered what kind of disability and what kind of disorder?

A Cognitive Disability and a neurological disorder.
What neurological functions are challenged by L.D.?;;;;
;;; Thinking ; reasoning.


;;; Students with L.D.s have typical intellectual capacity and often are found to have average or above average intellectual ability, but they do not process the information in the same manner or at the same time as typical same-aged peers.;;;

The majority of children who have L.D.s are generally diagnosed at what age?;
;; Between 6 and 12 years.;
Six key academic areas identified as possible concerns for an individual to develop a learning disability:
;1. Reading2.

; Writing3.; Mathematics4.; Oral Language5.

; Phonological Awareness6.; Motor Skills

Describe L.D. challenges with:Reading
;; Problems decoding words, basic word-recognition skills, and reading comprehension;
Describe L.D. challenges with:Writing
;;; Lack skills that require written expression tasks, spelling, and handwriting;
Describe L.D. challenges with:Mathematics;;;;;
;;Difficulties with quantitative processing, arithmetic, time, space, and calculation of facts.


Describe L.D. challenges with:Oral Language;;;
;;Issues identified in a variety of language disorders, such as difficulties with language development, listening, speaking, and learning vocabulary.


Describe L.D. challenges with:Phonological Awareness
;;Possesses poor skills in recognizing the sounds of language (phonemes).;
Describe L.D. challenges with:Motor Skills;;;;;;;
;; Demonstrates problems with gross motor skills and fine motor coordination, therefore showing awkwardness, clumsiness, and little coordination.


Assessment information is used to determine if a student with L.D. is…
;achieving at his or her potential.


List four Informal Assessments
;; 1.; Portfolio Assessment;2.; Dynamic Assessment;3.; Diagnostic teaching assessment;4.; Direct daily measurement;
Define:Portfolio Assessment;
;; Collected samples of student work during a specific period of time, used to assess the student’s achievement level and progress 
Define: Dynamic assessment
Teacher determines a student’s ability to learn in a certain situation rather than documenting what the student has actually learned.

Define:Diagnostic teaching assessment;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;Teacher collects information about a student to use in assessment throughout the period of instruction.;
Define:Direct Daily Measurement  
       Classroom form of daily assessment of a student’s performance on the skills that are taught each day and instruction for particular students may be modified as needed
List 3 Formal Assessments
   1.  Observation 2.  Standardized Tests 3.

  Curriculum-based measurement 

Define:Observation (assessment)        
  required as a component of a formal assessment.  Information is gathered by identifying the learning behaviors of a student and how those behaviors affect the student’s learning.  Information is collected about a student’s participation in class, tasks completed, and social interactions. 
Define:Standardized Tests
 – offer information about the discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement, which is necessary when working with students who have learning disabilities.   are norm referenced so the student’s score may be compared to other students of the same age.  Tests that are used to evaluate a student’s overall academic achievement include Iowa tests of Basic Skills, the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement, and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3.


define:Curriculum-based measurement            
 Recommended in the assessment of a student with a possible learning disability is the use of a curriculum-based measurement tool (CBM) as it is a more direct and regular assessment addressing the student’s learning patterns and growth, while providing information to educators helpful in program development.  A CBM is important as it measures a student’s performance, checks the learning patterns and progress, and provides feedback to the teacher regarding effective instruction. 
What’s an IRI, and what does it do?     
    Informal Reading Inventory; can determine a student’s reading level: independent, instructional, or frustration. 
What are Modifications?            
 Changes made to the existing curriculum so the individual needs of a student may be met.  Changes may include: providing different materials, require a different task to be completed, remove some of the expected skills, or exempt the student from an assignment
Oral language disorders may be demonstrated by..



  •      Poor phonological awareness
  • Delayed speech
  • Poor articulation
  • Disorders of grammar or syntax
  • Deficiencies in learning vocabulary
  • Poor understanding of oral language and its uses.


Define:Developmental Aphasia
   a severe problem with the acquisition of oral language and may be described either as receptive or expressive language disorders. 
a specific expressive disorder with problems involving word retrieval, word expression, or memory.
Techniques to naturally stimulate language in young children, include:
   Expansion, parallel talk, and self-talk.
Strategies for teaching listening skills may include:
  – Promote phonological awareness activities (clap rhythms, recite nursery rhymes).

  Help understand words and concepts. Build a listening vocabulary– Facilitate understanding of sentences and linguistic elements.– Teach listening comprehension (follow directions or find the main idea).  Allow listening to stories.

– Produce oral questions (instruct on who, what, when, where, why, how).– Teach sentence structures and patterns.  Instruct on homonyms, synonyms, and antonyms.

5 stages in developing speaking skills
babbling, jargon, single-word usage, two- and three-word sentences, and language acquisition.
List some strategies for teaching speaking skills:          
     – build a speaking vocabulary– Production of speech sounds.– teach linguistic patterns.– Formulate sentences– Practice oral language skills– Engage in parallel talk– Utilize self-talk
List 5 essential elements for learning to read successfully:
   1. Phonemic awareness2.

  Phonics3.  Fluency4.  Vocabulary5.  Text comprehension

Examples of strategies to improve this area of reading: Phonics
– Play word and rhyming games – Analyze phoneme elements 
Examples of strategies to improve this area of reading: Word Recognition
 – Use remedial reading lessons
Examples of strategies to improve this area of reading: Fluency
– Repeat readings- Use predictable books- recognize sight words
Examples of strategies to improve this area of reading: Vocabulary
 – Teach content – find words to study – create word webs 
Examples of strategies to improve this area of reading: Reading Comprehension
– Use basal readers – Build vocabulary – Use graphic organizers 
Two approaches to teaching areas of reading are:
   Implicit & Explicit 
What is an implicit approach to teaching readings skills?
 A whole-language focus on the relationships of oral language, reading, and writing.
What is an explicit approach to teaching reading skills?
   An emphasis on teaching skills by direct instruction in phonics, word identification, and decoding skills. 
What is the Cloze Procedure?  
  Technique to build comprehension and language skills by supplying a passage with missing elements. 
What is DIBELS?
                A measurement system to assess a child’s skill levels in phonological awareness, alphabetic principles, and oral reading fluency.
What is the Fernald Method? 
   Uses the visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile senses to teach whole words
What is the Orton-Gillingham Method?
  Focuses on the multi-sensory, systematic, and structured language procedures for reading, decoding, and spelling.


What is Reading Recovery?
        A reading program designed for young children who have problems learning to read
What are the stages of writing?
 Pre-writing, drafting, revising, and sharing 
List some strategies for teaching written expression.   
   – Allow students to choose their own topic.  Model the writing process.

  Use graphic organizers.– Encourage the use of inventive spelling.– Vary the writing tasks.– Teach the process.– Promote ownership and control of the assignment.– Provide frequent and clear input.– Schedule opportunities to write.– Use computers and word processors

List some strategies for teaching: Spelling.

             Play sound-word games.  Conduct informal testing.  Analyze new words.  Teach word families  Utilize multi-sensory methods.  Promote a visual memory of words.  Develop auditory perception of letter sounds.
List some strategies for teaching:Handwriting
   – Use prewriting practice   Include fine motor activities and tools  Conduct training periods  Use verbal cues  Model letters
Students with mild to moderate disability conditions may fall under what categories in special education?
              Learning disability  Behavior/emotional disturbances  Autism  Other health impaired (OHI)  Mental retardation
Mild disabilities may refer to students with.


 – Learning disability– OHI– Some ED– Some MR
Moderate disabilities may refer to students with…


 – ED -MR– Autism 
List the 7 steps of the special education assessment requirement:    
       1. Pre-referral 2.  Screening 3.  Referral 4.  Evaluation and identification 5.  Instructional program planning 6.  Placement 7.  Review & Evaluation 
Describe Pre-Referral in terms of the assessment process.

          A student exhibiting problems in the general education classroom is provided interventions to determine any benefit from them.
Describe “Screening” in terms of the assessment process.
            Professionals gather additional information that may detect individuals in need of a more comprehensive evaluation. 
Describe “Referral” in terms of the assessment process.  
             Professionals use information from several sources and conduct an observation to study classroom performance and behaviors. 
Describe “Evaluation & Identification” in terms of the assessment process.


         A comprehensive evaluation is conducted to determine the student’s disability and possible eligibility for special education services. 
Describe “Instructional program planning” in terms of the assessment process.
  Assessment information is used to create goals, determine placement, and make plans for instructional delivery. 
Describe “Placement” in terms of the assessment process.         
 Decisions about least restrictive environment and services are made. 
Describe “Review and evaluation” in terms of the assessment process.
 Monitor the student’s progress and overall program. 
List 5 types of assessment types used for a comprehensive evaluation.

 1.  Criterion-referenced 2.  Curriculum-based 3.

  Norm-referenced 4.  Performance-based 5.  Standards-based 

What is a Criterion-referenced assessment? 
      A formal measure that evaluates a student on specific content domain and is used to provide students with feedback and teachers with information on progress.


What is a Curriculum-based assessment?
Evaluates student progress and performance of skills based on the curriculum or student behaviors, which helps teachers decide how to assist the student.
What is a Norm-referenced assessment?
A formal tool used to compare the performance of one student to other peers in the same age group.
What is a Performance-based assessment?
An informal measure used by teachers to assess a student’s knowledge, skills, and abilities.
What is a Standards-based assessment?
Formal evaluation that measures progress toward meeting goals or standards as previously established by the district or state.
Students who have what are considered students with Mild Disabilities?
– Learning disabilities- Mental retardation- Behavioral disorders- Speech/language disorders
What type of instruction does the following describe: incorporates accommodations, options, and flexibility into the teaching day?
Differentiated instruction.
What is an Instructional Strategy?
A teaching routine or method in which the steps, techniques, or activities are grouped in a logical manner to promote and reinforce academic achievement.

Describe this instructional strategy: Coaching
Helps students by giving them hints or suggestions to enhance learning by performing a task or gaining a skill.
Describe this instructional strategy: Cooperative Learning
Students work together to gain knowledge and enhance social skills.
Describe this instructional strategy: Cueing
This is a stimulus or reminder for the student to perform the correct response.
Describe this instructional strategy: Guided Practice
Activities related to goals in which students can practice the concepts and skills under the supervision of the teacher, through homework, or with a small group of students. Guided practice may include review, organizing information, rehearsing, summarizing, comparing, and so on.

Describe this instructional strategy: Incidental Teaching
A strategy that teaches a skill or concept during an event or situation in which it is presently occurring.
Describe this instructional strategy: Modeling
A more skilled person performs the task, activity, or project for a person less skilled so that person may learn to perform the same.
Describe this instructional strategy: Monitoring
The teacher is constantly involved in the student’s work to observe the progress and identify areas of concern.
Describe this instructional strategy: Pre-teaching
Helps students recall prior knowledge and background information as well as previous experiences about a topic.

Describe this instructional strategy: Reciprocal Learning
Helps students learn skills, concepts, information, and new ideas by completing a task after viewing the modeling of the teacher or other students. The teacher may then provide coaching, cueing, or scaffolding as the student engages in the activity.
Describe this instructional strategy: Scaffolding
These are strategies that support a student as he acquires knowledge, skills, or gains concepts.

Describe this instructional strategy: Sequencing
A task is broken into segments or steps and the student completes the activity by completing one step at a time until the entire task is done.
Describe this instructional strategy: Shaping
This is the beginning stage of task completion, as it is an approximation of the target behavior. The student is rewarded when repeatedly attempting the mastery of the task.
IEP goals must be _____ and ____.
Measurable and attainable.
IEP goals must state the ______ for the student.

PLEP stands for:
Present Levels of Educational Performance Statement
PLEP is:
An overall summary of the student’s abilities and disabilities, as well as outline what the student requires to become successful in school.
List examples of various Instructional Models
– Brain-Compatible Instruction- Direct Instruction- Functional Curriculum approach- Learning Strategies method- Multisensory instruction- Precision Teaching- Student-centered learning- Task analysis approach
Describe the following instructional model: Brain-compatible Instruction
Use of brain research and the suggested techniques.
Describe the following instructional model: Direct Instruction
Includes a set of designed instructional steps with demonstration, guided practice, and feedback essential.
Describe the following instructional model: Functional Curriculum approach
Teaching basic life skills in a meaningful and practical manner.
Describe the following instructional model: Learning Strategies method
Giving students a set of methods to help them improve their own ability to learn.

Describe the following instructional model: Multisensory instruction
Including all the senses to make learning more effective.
Describe the following instructional model: Precision Teaching
When the teacher or learner records responses on a standardized chart.
Describe the following instructional model: Student-centered learning
Focus on student’s developmental needs related to learning and her whole self
Describe the following instructional model: Task Analysis Approach
Breaking down tasks into smaller parts and teaching each as a separate skill.
What is Self-Control/Self-Regulation?
The ability of an individual to manage her own behavior in a given situation.
List the Eight Steps to teaching a learning strategy to students with disabilities:
1. Pretest student on tasks to identify strengths and weaknesses2. Separate the strategies into parts and discuss with student.

3. Model the new, expected steps in the strategy.4. Suggest student rehearse each step until it is absorbed.5. Develop a controlled situation for the student to practice using the strategy, giving feedback.6.

Attempt the use of strategies in real solutions.7. Posttest student, providing feedback.8. Support student in generalizing strategy and monitor progress.

2 Approaches that are found to be most effective in enhancing academic success are:
1. Students with disabilities work cooperatively with peers and receive feedback from them.2. Teachers use direct instruction and strategy instruction to promote skill development.
What categories might students with Severe to Profound disabilities is listed under?
– Behavior disorder/emotional disturbances.- Autism- Mental retardation- Developmental disability
A definition to describe persons with severe disabilities is summarized as:
Individuals who need ongoing, intensive support in one or more areas of major life functions so they may participate in community activities and enjoy some quality of life. They may need help with communication, self-care, mobility, and learning in order to pursue employment and independent living.
Students with severe to profound disabilities demonstrate problems with:
– memory- Attention- Language- generalizing skills across settings- Understanding presented info.

– retaining knowledge- using learned skills

What’s a splinter skill?
Is one that is observed or considered to be more advanced or unusual to the determined ability level of the student, so evaluations should not be based on this skill?
List 6 main purposes of an assessment for a student with severe to profound disabilities.
1. Evaluate existing skills.2. Link the collected information to instruction.3. Measure progress in achievement.4.

Improve behaviors.5. Analyze instruction.

6. Identify support services and strategies.

What is an Applied Curriculum?
Curriculum that provides students with authentic activities that apply to regular and real-world occurrences, making learning more meaningful. Teachers can observe the student’s skills acquisition and identify progress in a more direct manner.
A tube that feeds through the nose is called:
Nasogastric tube
A tube that feeds into the stomach is called:
Gastronomy tube
Jean Piaget’s was of the __(1)__ school of thought, and was a _(2)____, and a pioneer in the theory of __(3)____ development.

Known for his views on Moral Development
Lawrence Kohlberg
Person associated with the Ecological systems theory
Urie Bronfenbrenner
Person associated with the Social Learning Theory
5 Main components of an IEP Goal?
– Conditions- Performance- Criteria- Assessment- Standards
Essential Elements of Instruction include:
– Anticipatory set presented.- Objective and purpose explained.- Input provided (step-by-step instruction)- Modeling of task used.- Check for understanding- Allow guided practice.- Give closure.- Allow independent practice.
A neurological condition characterized by the occurrence of a small, conical-shaped head and an underdeveloped brain.

Sensorimotor Stage of Development
Typically 0-24 months of ageDuring the first stage, the infant builds an understanding of the environment throug exploration. At first the infant focuses only on his own body. Slowly they discover the world surrounding them as well and begin interacting with it.
Preoperational Stage of Development
Typically 2-7 years of ageThe child develops language skills and is able to think more symbolically. He has difficulty seeing things from another’s perspective and instead is very self-centered. Further along in this period, the child begins to think more systematically and is able to complete simple operational problems.

Children in this stage still find it difficult to understand the idea of conservation, that even if something changes its shape the amount will stay the same.

*not a dissbility classification under IDEA*students with ADHD requiring services are either classified as OHI or under section 504*3 categories of symptoms-inattentiveness=difficulty focusing-hyperactivity=difficulty sitting still-impulsivity=difficulty waiting their turn
An amputation is a missing limb of the body-either because it was removed for some reason, or because the person was born without it.
Nature of Behaviors-Things to look At
*Frequency-how many times a behavior occurred within a certain amount of time*Duration-how long the behavior lasts*Intensity-the severity of the behavior*Degrees of Severity-the frequency, duration, and intensity determine the severity-pattern of behavior
Cerebral Palsy (CP)
CP is a nonprogressive, neuromotor impairment that affects body movements and muscle coordination. It is often caused by oxygen deprivation in the brain bfore or during birth.*Athetoid-causes limbs to stiffen*Spastic-causes limbs to jerk
Concrete Operational Stage of Development
Typically 7-11 years of ageChildren in this stage are able to focus on more that one idea at a time.

They therefore are able to understand that others may have a different perspective than they do and that people can see things in different ways. These children still think very concretely, based on their immediate environment, and have difficulty thinking abstractly. Models and illustrations are important teaching tools to use with this age.

Externalizing Behavior
Any behavior, especially agressive ones, that are directed toward others.
Formal Operational Stage of Development
Typically 11-15 years old and into adulthood.Students during this stage no longer depend on concrete representations; instead, they are able to reason abstractly.

They also are able to organize calculations systematically in order to solve problems in an organized fashion.

Internalizing Behavior
Behavior that is withdrawn, directed inward, or focused on oneself.
Muscular Dystrophy
This is a hereditar disease.

People with muscular diystrophy have their muscles attacked and weakened by their own bodies.

Identification Process
The process of identifying children who are eligible for disability services.
Child Find
Child Find is the government program that works with schools, hospitals, social services, and families to identify students with disabilities who requre special services.

Factors that may interfere with the identification process (4)
-cultural differences-gender-low socioeconomic status-language differences
When the teachers and parents speak openly with the student about the nature of her disability. Understanding, strengths, weaknesses, optimism, and alliance should be shown and explained to the student.
Peer Tutoring
A student without disabilities tutors a student with disabilities or a student with disabilities tutors another (younger) student.

Functional Behavioral Analysis (FBA)
A behavioral evaluation technique that determines the exact nature of problem behaviors, the reasons why they occurr, and under what conditions the likelihood of their occurrence is reduced. Documentation (ABC Chart)*Antecedent-what happened right before the behavior.*Behavior-What exactly is the behavior*Consequence-what consequent did the student receive; was it effective; should other consequences be tried instead that may be more effective
Manifestation Determination
The result of a process used to determine whether a student’s discplinary problems are the result of a disability.
Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP)
A set of strategies designed to address the function of a student’s behavior as a means through which to alter it; requires a functional behavioral assessment and an associated plan that describes individually determined procedures for both prevention and intervention.
Positive Behavior Support (PBS) Tiers
*Primary-intended for all students at the classroom level and intended to create an overall positive school culture. Basic instruction and reinforcement*Secondary-intended for students who are considered at risk for inappropriate behavior and need additional intervention; served in small groups and may require more intense behavior interventions*Teritary-intended only for those students who do not succeed with the other levels and considered to have chronic and intense behavior difficulties.
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
The design of something is created from the outset to be available for use universally, by people with every level of ability.
Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy:List from lower level to higer level (6)
*Remembering-retrieving, recognizing or recalling*Understanding-exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferrig, comparing, explaining*Applying-solve problems, demonstrate skills, construct tables and graphs*Analyzing-distinguish between facts and inferences, or determine relevance of the information*Evaluation-determine the value of the work*Creating-organizing the different parts to create a new structure
Multiple Intelligences (MI)List (8)
*Human intelligence is viewed as multidimensional.

*Verbal/Linguistic-words (reading, writing, telling stories)*Logical/Mathematical-logic and reasoning (numbers, patterns, graphs, time lines)*Visual/Spatial-think three-dimensionally (drawing or painting maps)*Bodily/Kinesthetic-body language, hands-on activities*Musical/Rhythmic-musical-rewrite lyrics to songs*Interpersonal-feelings of others-group projects, cooperative learning*Intrapersoanl-their strengths and weaknesses; journal writing, reflection time, own work*Naturalist-aspects of nature; field trips, bring nature into the class

SMART Learning Goals
Learning objectives should be written in behavioral terms, what the child will do.S=specificM=measurableA=attainable with the time and resources allottedR=relevant to the learnerT=targeted to the learner’s level of learning
Zero Tolerance
Popular term used to designate (and promote) school policies that address incidents of drugs or weapon possession with automatic suspension or expulsion.
Positive Behavior Support
An approach to behavior management in which scientifically validated practices are appied across a number of settings, such as the home, school, place of work, and community.
Classroom Management
The process of managing the classroom and the student belonging to the classroom; it is not discipline.

This includes rules and procedures to proactively ensure an appropriate learning environment that is introduced on the first day of school. The golden rule for good classroom management is prevention. Also, engage students, constantly move around the room, have positive interactions, anticipate the misbehavior and remind the student of the appropriate behavior, create class rewards and consequences for misbehaving.

Organizing the Learning Environment:List the ideas
-set up the room with tables and desks keeping the student grouping in mind-tables for cooperative learning and small group instruction-desks for whole class instruction and can be pulled apart for paired work or independent work-dividers to seperate groups of students from each other-avoid a busy looking classroom with many things posted on the walls-large obstacle-free aisles-comfortable time-out areas
List of assessments used to assess Reading Skills
-Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised (WRMT-R)-Gray Oral Reading Test, Fourth Edition-Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Second Edition (KTEA-2)
List of assessments used to assess multiple subjects
-Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition (WIAT-II)-Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT-R)-Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III ACH)
List of assessments measuring students’ intellectual or cognitive abilities
-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)-Staford-Binet, Fifth Edition (SB:V)-Differential Ability Scals (DAS)-Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitivie Abilities (WJ III COG)-Leiter International Performance Scale, Revised (Leiter-R)
Describe the Assessment Tool: Woodcock Reading Master Test-Revised (WRMT-R)
The test includes letter and word identification, and nonsense words for decoding, word and passage comprehension.
Describe the Assessment Tool:The Gray Oral Reading Test, Fourth Edition (GORT-4)
The student reads passages aloud while the examiner scores the reading for rate and accuracy; then he is asked comprehension questions and the answers are also scored.
Describe the Assessment Tool: The Kaurfman Test of Educational Achievement, Second Edition (KTEA-2)
This test includes letter and word recognition, and nonsense word decoding, reading comprehension, and fluency.
Describe the Assessment Tool: Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition (WAIT-II)
Measures word reading, pseudoword decoding, reading comprehension, numerical operations, math reasoning, spelling, written expression, listening comprehension, and oral expession.
Describe the Assessment Tool: Peabody Individual Achievement Test, Revised (PIAT-R)
Measures general information, word recognition, reading comprehension, mathematics, spelling, and written expression. Very useful for students with limited oral and written ability as students point to answers.
Describe the Assessment Tool: Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III ACH)
Includes letter-word identification, reading fluency, passage comprehension, story recall, understanding directions, calculation, math fluency, applied problems, spelling, wriing fluency, and writing samples. Because the test is shorter than most, there have been arguments that this test does not provide strong data on the child’s performance.
Wechsler Intelligene Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)
For students ages 6-11. Assessesproblem-solving skills; measures verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. Resulting overall score is presented as the full scale IQ score.
Differential Ability Scales (DAS)
Measures IQ and includes 12 core subtests, 5 diagnostic subtests, and 3 achievement tests. Includes a Special Nonverbal Composite, which measures IQ for students with language=based disabilities or hearing impairments.
Stanford-Binet, Fifth Edition (SB: V)
Provides a full-scale IQ, verbal and nonverbal.
Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitivie Abilities (WJ III COG)
Measures general intellectual ability. Subtests provide scores for verbal ability, thinking ability, and cognitive efficiency; was normed on the same population as the WJ III Tests of Achievement. Using these two tests to compare cognitive ability and achievement will achieve a more accurate result.
Leiter International Performance Scale, Revised (Leiter-R)
Full-scale IQ score has 3 composite scores; fluid reasoning, fundamental visualization, and spatial visualization. Nonverbal attention and memory are also measured. Is intended for those with severe disabiliies and is administered through pointing rather than speaking.
frequent distribution
A table of how often a score occurs within a set of data; allows you to see what score is most common.
The difference between the high score and low score; trouble is that one extreme score will throw off the calculation.
The spread of scores withing the distribution.
standard deviation (SD)
In connection with standardized assessments, a statistical measure that expresses the variability and the distribution from the mean of a set of scores.
bell curve
The distribution of scores that would be found if every student in that age or grade level took the test; it never changes.
positively skewed distribution
Most scores falling above the mean
negatively skewed distribution
Most scores falling below the mean
A relationship between two variables.
Average of all the numbers.
Reports Should contain:(List all 8)
* Identifying Data* Reason for Referral* Background History* Behavioral Observation* Tests and Procedures Administered* Test Results* Conclusions* Recommendations
Identifying Data
information found in school records (Student’s chronological age, name, student ID, ETC)
Reason for Referral
Why was the decision made to assess the student? Could be only a few sentences.
Background History
A thorough history of the student that shows why a disability is suspected; includes a family history, developmental history, academic history, and social history.
Behavioral Observation
Description of how the studnt bhaved whn completing the assessment.
Tests and Procedures Administered
A list of assessments that were administered, as well as procedures tat were performed, classroom observations and parent or student interviews
Test Results
States the test results and explains what they indicate,as well as whether this test should be considered a valid measure of the student’s capabilities.
Summary of the student’s overall perfomance (the bottom line); Student’s strengths and weaknesses, information on student behavior
Contains practical suggestions for how to stengthen the studen’t areas of weakness, suggestions for the school, the teacher, and the parent.
Parallel Teaching
Students are divided into groups to be taught the content by one teacher; groups may be mixed-ability level or same-ability level.
Station Teaching
Students are divided into groups and the teachers take turns teaching each group; divide students into student-led centers & the teachers monitor the centers.
Team Teaching
Teacers teach the whole class together.
Communication with Stakehoders
*Build Respect & Trust*Acively Listen*Use Layperson’s Terms*Offer Encouragement

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