Prostatecancer is relatively critical and major disease among men especially those above40 years old which is death-causing disease. In 2004, approximately230110 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer and 29900 of them were died fromthis cancer in United States (Albertsen,2005). There are some common signs and symptoms for those suffered fromprostate cancer such as frequent urination, blood in urine or semen, burningsensation during ejaculation and urination.
Thus, the biomarker for prostatecancer such as prostate specific antigen (PSA) is included in the blood test tocheck on the level of this protein which indicates the presence of prostatecancer. In fact, numerous factorscould be led to prostate cancer initiation. For instance, gene mutation,inflammation and abnormal increased the rate of cell proliferation(Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017) will induce the occurrence of prostatecancer. This cancer also associatedwith dysregulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and other signalling pathway.
Whenall these pathways are not regulated or well-controlled, it leads to reductionin apoptotic rate, malignant transformation, tumour progression and metastasis (Claudio,2016) and this will substantially increase the risk getting prostate cancer. Inflammationand abnormal cell proliferation can cause the epithelium of normal prostateinitiate the cascading, which induce the lesions to form. This directly gives aprimary prostate cancer or proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) and simultaneously,it stimulates an intermediate stage known as prostatic intraepithelialneoplasia (PIN) (Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017). Otherthan that, there are a lot of scientific proofs indicating that the applicationof molecular and pathological analysis with prostate cancer of human and animalmodel depicted that infectious agents, estrogenic hormone, age, race, genetic andenvironmental factors can quicken the deterioration in the prostate epitheliumand provoke inflammation which might be attributed to make prostate cancer toreach critical level (Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017). Lastly,the pathways are inter-connected and regulated to have a normal prostate due tothe effect of cross-talk mechanism. Androgen receptors (AR) regulation is oneof the major pathways must be under control to avoid prostate cancer. Theoverlapping between the pathways related to endocrinology and oncology is themain concern and would be further discussed and elucidated. Those pathwaysinvolve with the kinase and the phosphorylation actions are the core wherebyrelated to the development and progression of prostate cancer.
Besides,molecular changes also responsible and produce androgen-independence prostatecancer cells (Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017) which promote itsprogression.