. In most organized sport teams, leaders and coachesa. emergeb. are appointedc. are elected by consensusd.
are elected by majority votee. none of the above
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“Great leaders are born, not made.” This statement is an example of which approach to leadership?a. situationalb. traitc. behaviorald.
“Great leaders are made, not born.” This statement is an example of which approach to leadership?a. traitb. behavioralc. situationald.
Smith and Smoll’s studies on coaching behaviors and Little League coaches found thata. coaches can change their behaviors to become more positiveb. coaches can’t control their positive behaviorsc.
coaches can’t control their negative behaviorsd. coaches have high self-esteeme. coaches with higher self-confidence exhibit more negative behaviors than those with lower self-confidence
In their classic study of the coaching (leadership) behaviors of legendary basketball coach John Wooden, Tharp and Gallimore found that his most often-used coaching behavior wasa. statements of displeasureb. praise and encouragementc. verbal instructions on what to do and how to do itd.
combining instruction with punishmente. modeling the correct behavior
According to results obtained in studies using the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire, successful leaders tend to scorea. high on both consideration and initiating structureb. high on initiating structure and low on considerationc. high on consideration and low on initiating structured. low on both initiating structure and consideratione.
none of the above
Fiedler’s research has identified which two types of leadership styles?a. relationship oriented and task orientedb. situation oriented and task orientedc. task oriented and initiating structure orientedd. relationship oriented and situation orientede. none of the above
The study using interviews of elite gymnastics coaches (Cote, Salmela, & Russell) showed that expert coaches did not exhibit which of the following behaviors?a.
gave technical instruction regarding gymnastics progressionsb. provided a supportive environment through positive feedbackc. pushed gymnasts by constantly issuing threats and yellingd. stressed conditioning to ensure physical readinesse. provided opportunities for simulating the mental and technical demands of the competition
Regardless of age, athletes prefer coaches whoa. give positive feedbackb.
give technical instructionc. give negative feedbackd. b and ce.
a and b
When coaches obtain the necessary information from relevant players and then come to a decision, what type of decision style are they using?a. consultative-individualb. autocratic-consultativec. consultative-groupd. groupe. relationship-consultative
Which of the following statements is (are) true?a.
Athletes high in internal locus of control prefer training and instruction coaching behaviors.b. Athletes high in external locus of control prefer democratic coaching behaviors.c.
Females high in trait anxiety preferred autocratic coaching behaviors.d. b and ce. a and c
According to research on leadership behavior in youth sports by Smith and colleagues, which of the following is (are) true?a. Little League players playing for coaches who attended a workshop designed to facilitate positive coach-athlete interaction had a higher dropout rate than a comparable control group.
b. Players with high self-esteem were not as affected by coaches’ supportiveness and instructiveness as players with low self-esteem.c. Players with low self-esteem were not as affected by coaches’ supportiveness and instructiveness as players with high self-esteem.d. a and be. a and c
Which of the following is (are) a guideline put forth based on 25 years of Smith and Smoll’s research?a.
Maintain clear expectations.b. Reinforce effort as much as results.
c. Give encouragement and corrective instructional feedback immediately after a mistake.d. all of the abovee. a and c
Which of the following results from Smith and Smoll’s studies on coaching behaviors is (are) true?a.
Two thirds of the behaviors exhibited by coaches were negative.b. Players for coaches who displayed high levels of general technical instruction evaluated their teammates and sport more positively.c. There was generally a high relationship between players’ perceptions of coaches’ behaviors and the actual coaching behaviors.
d. a and be. b and c
According to successful professional football coach Bill Parcells, which of the following is NOT a quality of successful leadership?a. flexibilityb. candorc.
trustd. patiencee. loyalty
Which of the following is (are) true regarding antecedents of coaches’ expectations and values?a.
There are cross-cultural variations in coaching behaviors.b. Division I athletes thought their coaches were more supportive than Division III athletes.c.
Coaches high in extrinsic motivation tend to be more autonomous in their decision making.d. a and ce. a and b
Which of the following is (are) FALSE concerning findings from studies of the antecedent conditions that affect leader behavior?a. Preference for an autocratic coaching style increases with age.
b. Females prefer an autocratic style more than males do.c. Males prefer training and instruction behaviors more than females do.d. a and be.
b and c
Which of the following is (are) FALSE concerning findings from studies of the consequences of leadership behaviors?a. High frequencies of social support are related to poor team performance.b. High frequencies of social support and democratic decision making are associated with high satisfaction among athletes.c. High levels of cohesion are related to autocratic coaching behaviors.
d. all of the abovee. b and c
Which of the following is (are) NOT part of effective leadership?a. leadership styleb.
situational factorsc. athlete characteristicsd. leader qualitiese. position power
In a more recent follow-up study on coach John Wooden (Gallimore & Tharp, 2004), they concludeda. specific planning was critical to administering the heavy information loadb. Wooden considered instruction via information a positive approach to coachingc.
starters received more praise than reservesd. a and ce. a and b
Which of the following is NOT an essential characteristic of leadership development in sport?a. strong relationship with parentsb.
enriched tactical knowledgec. development of high skilld. strong work ethice. good rapport with people
Which type of exercise leader was associated with cohesive exercise groups?a. democraticb. task-orientedc.
relationship-orientedd. laissez-fairee. interactional
Which of the following is NOT a principle of energy management developed by Loehr?a. Growth ceases when energy investment ceases.b. Use positive rituals to manage energy.c.
Never push beyond the comfort zone.d. Balance energy investments with energy deposits.e. Energy is highly contagious.
The definition of leadership usually seen in the literature isa.
the behavioral process of influencing individuals and groups toward set goalsb. being a positive role modelc. the process of creating change in groups and individualsd.
the process of keeping a group working together without conflicts
According to Martens, which of the following statements is (are) true?a. Team-sport athletes prefer more relationship-oriented leaders than do individual-sport athletes.b.
As group size increases, an autocratic leadership style becomes more effective.c. When little time is available, a relationship-oriented leader is more effective.d. a and be. b and c
According to the multidimensional model of sport leadership, performance and satisfaction are a function of the degree of congruence amonga. three types of leader behaviorb.
motivation of the leaderc. leadership styled. situational characteristicse. member characteristics
The leader takes a visionary position and inspires people to follow that position.
This is characteristic ofa. transformative leadershipb. contingency management leadershipc. the Bass-Ricardo philosophy of leadershipd.
situational leadershipe. democratic leadership
The Leadership Scale for Sports identifies which coaching behaviors?a. social supportb.
democratic behaviorc. administrative behaviord. a and be. a and c
Which of the following is (are) a guideline(s) put forth based on 25 years of Smith and Smoll’s research?a. Maintain clear expectations.b.
Reinforce effort as much as results.c. Give encouragement and corrective instructional feedback immediately after a mistake.d.all of the abovee. a and c
In a recent study comparing coaches and peer leaders, coaches tended to exhibit morea. autocratic behaviorsb. social support behaviorsc. training and instruction behaviorsd. a and ce. a and b