rachel_jordan history ch.15-16

Topics: ArtPaintings

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Last updated: April 23, 2019

Empires united by outside conquerors
Gunpowder empires

Ottoman religious, legal, and educational advisers
The Ulema

Chief minister of the sultan
Grand Vizier

Elite guard of the Ottoman Turks
Janissaries

Residence of a sultan and his wives
Harem

Ottoman art included __________
distinctive woven rugs

Ottoman Turk mosques were designed with __________
domes and minarets

The Ottoman Empire after the death of Suleyman was hurt by ___________
the cost of constant wars, rise of a privileged group, and lack of training for officials

The Ottoman Empire preferred to _____________
force all conquered peoples to follow Islam

Ottoman Turks conquered ___________
North Africa, Constantinople, the Balkans

True/False Even late in the empire, Ottoman merchants and officials avoided European styles and customs.
False

True/False Officials appointed by the central government were called pashas.
True

True/False The Ottoman Turks modeled their mosques on the floor plan of the Hagia Sophia.
True

True/False The Ottomans had their own silk industry.
True

True/False The queen mother of a sultan often had considerable power and influence.
True

Conformity to traditional religious beliefs
Religious Orthodoxy

Islamic group to which the Safavids belonged
Shia

Political disorder
Anarchy

Safavid king
Shah

Type of carpets highly prized in the West
Persian

Paintings by Riza-i-Abbasi characteristically had ____________
Soft colors and flowing movements

_____________ Appointed officials based on merit, control the power of the aristocracy, be more available to their subjects
Safavid shahs

_____________ Strengthened the army with the latest weapons, returned Azerbaijan to the dynasty, heightened intellectual freedom
Shah Abbas

The shah himself claimed to be the _____________
Spiritual leader of all Islam

Trade goods in the Safavid empire were carried on ____________
a road system that was fairly safe

True/False Most trade goods in the Safavid Empire traveled by horse or camel caravan.
True

True/False The founder of the Safavid dynasty was Shah Abbas.
False

True/False The Ottoman sultan claimed to be the spiritual leader of Islam.
True

True/False The Safavids had less knowledge of science, medicine, and mathematics than other society in the region did.
False

True/False The sea power of the Europeans limited the spread of the Safavid Empire.
True

Founder of the Mogul dynasty in India
Babur

Painting style that combined Persian-Indian motifs
“Akbar” style

Private company representing the British Crown
The East India Company

Considered the most beautiful building in India
Taj Mahal

Underground prison used in 1756
Black Hole of Calcutta

Babur’s forces entered India through __________
the Khyber Pass

By the Late eighteenth century, Mogul prosperity was shaken by __________
the coming of the British

____________ kept part of the taxes they collected, exercised considerable power, and received farm plots
Local, lower-ranking officials called zamindars

The British successes in India were achieved through the military genius of ___________
Sir Robert Clive

The Moguls in India were ____________
foreigners who were also Muslims

True/False Suttee is the Hindu practice of levying illegal taxes.
False

True/False Akbar filled upper-rank government positions with Hindus.
False

True/False Aurangzeb was tolerant of Hindu practices.
False

True/False Shah Jahan led successful military campaigns in the Deccan Plateau.
True

True/False The Mogul empire was the greatest Indian dynasty since the Mauryan dynasty.
True

Ruling dynasty from 1644 until 1911
Qing

Leader of exploration and trading voyages
Zheng He

Active Christian missionaries in China
Jesuits

Manchu fighting units
Banners

Dynasty founded by Ming Hong Wu
Ming

Accomplishments of the Ming emperors included __________
renovating the grand Canal

____________ contributed to the downfall of the Ming dynasty
Peasant unrest, weak rulers, poor crop yields

Reports from early Christian missionaries made ____________
Europeans more curious about China

The emperor Kangxi was generally tolerant of ___________
Christian missionaries

The first Europeans to make contact with the Ming dynasty were the ____________
Portuguese

True/False European trade was confined to Beijing by the Qing dynasty.
False

True/False Jesuits, a Catholic order, were among the most active missionaries in China.
True

True/False Manchu dress customs included the braiding of hair into a queue.
True

True/False The majority of Chinese during the Qing dynasty were Manchus.
False

True/False The Manchus were a farming and hunting people from the area known today as Manchuria.
True

Walled compound inside Beijing
Imperial City

Painful practice for Chinese women
Footbinding

Group of many related families
Clan

Private business based on profit
Commercial Capitalism

Most famous of Ming Era arts
Blue-and-white porcelain

____________ these were changes that occurred in China between 1500 and 1800.
Improvements in the food supply, an increase in population, and growth in manufacturing and trade

Between 1500 and 1800, ____________
85% percent of Chinese people were farmers

In Qing China, only ________ could have a formal education and pursue a career in government or scholarship.
males

The Forbidden City was ______________
closed to commoners

The ideal family unit in Qing China consisted of ____________
the extended family

The Golden Lotus is considered by many to be the first _____________
realistic social novel

Beyond the extended family as a social unit was the ___________, which consisted of dozens, or even hundreds, of related families
clan

Blue-and-white porcelain became one of the most famous of all the arts of the ___________
Ming Era

Initially, __________ was performed as a status symbol among the wealthiest women.
footbinding

Many Chinese looked down on trade and manufacturing as inferior to ___________
farming

Shogunates’ method of control
Hostage System

Crops grown for sale
Cash Crops

Territories or domains
Hans

Heads of noble families
Daimyo

Japanese social outcasts
Eta

________ earned the name “the Hermit Kingdom” because of its isolationist practices.
Korea

Much of the prose literature of the Tokugawa Era was _____________
lighthearted and entertaining

The first Jesuit missionary, who came to Japan in 1549, was ______________
Francis Xavier

The Japanese warrior class consisted of _____________
daimyo, shogun, and ronin

What was the order of the four main classes during the Tokugawa Era?
Warriors, farmers, artisans, merchants.

____________ rulers completed the restoration of central authority, which was begun by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi.
Tokugawa

By the end of the sixteenth century, thousands of Japanese had become ___________
Christians

The first European traders to arrive in Japan were from __________
Portugal

The long period Tokugawa rule was known as the ____________
“Great Peace”

The powerful daimyo of Edo took control of Japan and assumed the title of __________ in 1603.
shogun

nonelected government officials
Bureaucracy

fabled gateway to Spice Islands
Melaka

Europeans’ name for Spice Islands
Moluccas

part of the continent
Mainland States

Dutch homeland
Netherlands

The Islamic trade network developed in the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian Archipelago because ___________
Muslim merchants wanted to trade spices

The Southeast Asian states evolved into four styles of monarchy including _____________
Islamic sultans, Vietnamese emperors, and Buddhist kings

What group of explorers first found the gateway to the Spice Islands?
Portuguese

Which Southeast Asian state had a monarchy that followed the Chinese model?
Vietnam

Why were spices highly valued and sought out so eagerly?
They had medicinal uses and preserved meat for winter.

English influence in Southeast Asia was reduced to ____________
a single port on the coast of Sumatra

In non-mainland states, Islam and Christianity began to attract converts, but ___________ advanced on the mainland.
Buddhism

In the ____________ style of monarchy, the king ruled according to the teachings of Confucius.
Vietnamese

Islamic sultans staffed their bureaucracies mainly with ____________
aristocrats

The Portuguese were driven out of the spice trade by the ___________
Dutch

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