Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Pat Lloyd
Last updated: September 28, 2019
Reading instruction has been highly concerned in Taiwanese education recently, and reading is also one of the critical language skills in English learning (Wichadee, 2014). The recent studies show that reading is an efficient way to expand learners’ word recognition (Kroll et al., 2002; Stanovich, 2000; Thorndike, 1973). Numerous studies have also shown that reading and incidental vocabulary learning have a particular relationship. According to Nation & Waring (2004), the crucial factor of vocabulary learning from reading is – how many times we meet a word.
They state that guessing a word and remembering it are entirely different. In the studies of Saragi, Nation, and Meister (1978), words have been presented six times to subjects who learnt 93% of the words; however, Jenkins, Stein & Wysocki (1984) found that a word after ten meetings has been acquired by only 25% of their subjects. The previous studies illustrate that one in seven of target words could be learnt in one meeting (Nagy, Herman & Anderson 1985; Swabborn & Glopper, 1999).
Rott (1999) concluded that six meetings were a sufficient number. The more we read, the more incidental vocabulary we will acquire from contexts. As everyone knows, each word has a different meaning in different contexts. If possible, learners may build up specific knowledge of words and they may be able to develop their use of vocabulary in writing. There is no doubt that reading a lot can contribute to our writing style and also aid our spelling. According to Krashen (1989), he argues that the most efficient way to attain spelling and vocabulary is built in the comprehensible input in the form of reading. According to the Input Hypothesis, we know that language is subconsciously acquired – means that acquirers focus on the meaning of the messages but not on the form of the messages. Thus, the acquisition process is considered as “incidental learning.
” At this stage, we can know that reading has a strong impact and also scaffolds learners’ vocabulary acquisition. Reading is “a psycholinguistic guessing game” (Goodman, 1967), and the process of reading consists of multiple sub-skills, such as vocabulary sizes, syntax parsing, and other linguistic devices. Learners may have sufficient skills to support themselves to comprehend texts, and learning to read also requires long periods of training.
Reading comprehension is one of the purposes of reading training. Learners are expected to have an understanding from a text. However, there are no certain standardized criteria to assess learners’ reading comprehension.
Reading assessments in the previous studies have shown that there are different types of measures of reading comprehension, such as multiple choices, open-ended questions and so on. Then summary writing is one of the evaluations, which is regarded as a productive skill. The feature of summary writing is to determine some vital information or gist from a text. According to Dole, Duffy & Pearson (1991), learners are expected to differentiate importance from unnecessary details and then connect ideas coherently. Summary writing is often used to enhance comprehension and recall of valuable information of texts.
Therefore, the aim of the study is an attempt to shed light on the relationship between reading and summary writing from a write-to-read perspective.