Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Bradford Fowler
Last updated: October 2, 2019
rearranged to formconjugated diens, and stimulates the autocatalytic lipid peroxidation cascades 50.
In plantdefense mechanism plant stress phyto-hormones like methyl Jasmonate plays prominent role asan anti-oxidant and suppresses oxidative stress mediated cellular damage 8. The sameevidences were observed in animals treated with methyl Jasmonate and minimize the depletionof endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes. Activated immune cells, such as macrophages andneutrophils in the host and in turn, the stimulated cells synthesize pro-inflammatory factors,matrix proteases and free radicals and leads to intense secondary inflammation in tissues begintransient synovitis-arthritis 46. The inflammation and pain is associated with peri-articulartissue edema which causes increase in paw swelling and ankle diameter. Assessment of arthritiseffectively carried out by measuring change in paw volume using plethysmograph and swellingby measuring paw thickness 51. In present study treatment with methyl Jasmonate reduces thepaw volume and paw thickness which may be due to anti-inflammatory activity. Severity ofarthritis is again an effective and simple way to calculate the arthritis index. The inflammation,paw swelling and thickness are directly proportional to arthritis index.
In current study thearthritis index is significantly reduces with treatment of methyl Jasmonate. This is again anindicating parameter which shows that MJ is potential anti-arthritis candidate.The change in body weight of rats remained as one of the significant considerations to measureand assesses the course/ severity of the disease and the response to therapy of arthritic drugs.Severity of arthritis disease progression is associated directly to weight loss. Due to alteration inthe metabolic activities of diseased group is underlying cause for mean reduction in body weight.Previous studies revels that reduction in body weight during inflammation is due to deficientabsorption of nutrients through the intestine 5253. Decrease in mean body weight wasobserved in LPS treated rats due to inflammation.
Methyl Jasmonate shows gain in mean bodyweight as compare to disease group. The MJ effect on gain in body weight may be due toreduced inflammation or by improving the essential nutrient absorption through intestine.In the clinical practice markers of bone are excellent indicator of disease activity in bone disease,menopause, or auto immune processes etc.
Alkaline phosphatase is present in plasma membraneosteoblast animportant marker and frequently used to assess the bone diseases 54. Other marker14enzymes in serum like AST, ALT has been reported to play a vital role in the formation ofbiologically active chemical mediators such as bradykinins in inflammatory process 5556.Methyl Jasmonate reduces the serum levels of ALP, AST and ALT which is an indication foranti-arthritic activity.
Change in haematological parameters is directly related to inflammation and ais previous studiesand reveals that there are changes in a count of RBC, WBC and ESR. Chronic inflammation isassociated with iron deficiency and disturbed body erythropoietin synthesis. Iron anderythropoietin are important for erythropoiesis in red bone marrow 57. Methyl Jasmonatecompensates for control RBC count due to a reduction in inflammatory responses. Host defencecell-like WBC count is increased in inflammatory responses to fight against invading pathogen,bacteria, viruses and initiate chemotactic cascades 58. LPS treated group showed an increase inWBC count as compared to methyl Jasmonate treated group.
The reduction in WBC count maybe due to a reduction in inflammation.The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is common, a frequent simple test performed to assessthe inflammation in arthritis. An inflammatory protein in the blood makes the RBCs clumptogether and causes them to fall faster than the healthy blood cells. The test measures the rate atwhich the red blood cells fall and settle in the bottom of the tube. The rate is measured inmillimetres per hour. A fast sedimentation rate was observed in LPS treated a group as anincidence of severe infection 59. Methyl Jasmonate treated group reduces the RBCssedimentation rate due to limiting the inflammation and associated protein synthesisJoint histopathology is a direct measure to assess the cartilage protective and anti-arthriticactivity at the microscopic level.
LPS causes severe damage to articular cartilage tissues which isobserved in disease control group. The observed changes were damaged synovial lining, loss ofcellular integrity, pannus formation, plump endothelial lining. The effective protection wasobserved in MJ treated group and restores the normal articular cartilage structure which isdirectly related to its anti-inflammatory activity.From current study, we can conclude that the treatment with plant stress hormone MethylJasmonate ameliorates the biochemical and physical changes induced by LPS. The protectiveeffect in the animals presumably through its Anti-oxidant, Anti-peroxidativeand anti-inflammatory activity.