Renaissance Humanism Dr. Pate

Renaissance
Italian Ren. began in 1350, and then spread north of the alps after 1500. It was a rebirth of the classics, Ancient Greece and Rome. It was a cultural and artistic movement, and saw the study of the classics as a way to rediscover a man’s potential. This is when the identity of the individual man was valued. Men like Jeremiah of Montagnone (1302-1321) took a new approach at texts. He wrote “Compendium of Memorable Sayings” that included a wide range of ancient quotes like Catullus. He determined a critical technique for discriminating true ancient quotes because during the Middle Ages, they had unreliable cannons of the classics, and he most importantly distinguished two different periods in the classics. His books is divided into 1 part up to Augustus and the second part post augustan authors. (Transitional figure)

Jeremiah of Montagnone (1302-1321)
He began the shift from Middle Age thinking of the Classics to the Renaissance way of thinking. He took a more critical approach to the Classics demonstrated in his “Compendium of Memorable Sayings”. It included a wide range of ancient quotes like Catullus, determined a technique in order to distinguish true quotes/not fake quotes (MA had an unreliable cannon of the classics), and MOST IMPORTANTLY, distinguished between different classical periods. Though very chronologically crude, he divided the book into quotes up to August and quotes post-Augustan. This showed that there was a willingness among scholars to see the Classics in a new way. TRANSITIONAL FIGURE!!!!!

“Compendium of Memorable Sayings”
Written by Jeremiah of Montagnone. He took a more critical approach to the Classics. It included a wide range of ancient quotes like Catullus, determined a technique in order to distinguish true quotes/not fake quotes (MA had an unreliable cannon of the classics), and MOST IMPORTANTLY, distinguished between different classical periods. Though very chronologically crude, he divided the book into quotes up to August and quotes post-Augustan. This showed that there was a willingness among scholars to see the Classics in a new way.

Catullus
A roman poet unknown of in the middle ages.
appears in Jeremiah of Montagnone’s “Compendium of Memorable Sayings” and helped him stand out in the Renaissance.

Francesco Petrarch (1304-74)
Born to a Florentine family but was exiled to Avignon. He spent the majority of his life in France, though considered one of the most influential and well known Italian man in all of history. He was an ecclesiastic (One who made most of his living off of the church). In France, he had access to a large amount of Classical literature. The more he studied, the more he saw the classics as a new source of knowledge and value. He began editing the 1st, 3rd, and 4th renditions of Livy’s “History of Rome”. He connected the narrative of the three sections and noticed that the Middle Age scholars’ texts over the material different from the original copies of Livy’s. Here he developed the conviction that classical texts needed to be read and studied from the original work itself, not scholarly writings about it. He also realized Classics were a source of reality and virtue or value and standards. They could teach men how to be fully human. (Medieval times believed men were fragile but Petrarch saw men as able and God’s most excellent creation.) THROUGH HIM, HUMANISM WAS BORN. He wrote “De Viris Illustribus” which was many Biographies from famous men in Livy’s History of Rome. (The humanistic notion that individual men’s accomplishments should be celebrate developed too.) Possibly his most humanistic experience occurred when he climbed Mount Ventoux on April 26, 1336. He began to mediate on after life and truth. He look Augustus’ “Confessions” with him which he always turned to for guidance. But that day he began to doubt what he had been believing. From his book “Secretum”, Petrarch’s questions and ideas are written out. He contemplated if one learned from experiences of self and others. This led him to the conclusion that one MUST read the classics to gain truth and morals and not for metaphysics like in the MA. BT the truth and morals that come from reading the classics must come from a process. The classical author was writing from what was true for him in that time, place, and situation because of his individual experience. That truth would not necessarily related directly to the reader. Instead, he created a new teaching method called epistolaries- writing letters to the classical authors to ask questions and answers. (THIS HUMANIZED THE CLASSICAL AUTHORS> THEY WERE REAL AND NOT JUST ABSTRACT) By doing this, one could fit the situation into their own personal life. also, the MOST IMPORTANT ELEMENT TO HUMANISM PETRARCH LEFT THE WORLD was Rhetoric. He believed that if affectively delivered with passion and eloquence, one would have the ability to express truth and others could obtain and understanding of the truth personally. He pointed out that the Classic Cicero embodied this trait. He also stressed the idea of a positive and active life in community. in His “On His Own Ignorance” Petrarch says all learning that doesn’t make the man good is wrong (borrowed from Plato). Be active in the community and live morally with others. His legacy lived on well past him for 500 years until the 1800s when the scientific revolution. He believed education must consist of Latin and Greek, history, and literature. Also only for upper class gentlemen. Died in 1374.

Ecclesiastic
One who made most of his living off of the church

“Livy’s History of Rome”
Petrarch began editing the 1st, 3rd, and 4th renditions of “Livy’s History of Rome”. He connected the narrative of the three sections and noticed that the Middle Age scholars’ texts over the material different from the original copies of Livy’s. Here he developed the conviction that classical texts needed to be read and studied from the original work itself, not scholarly writings about it.

Petrarch’s Views on Classics
Here he developed the conviction that classical texts needed to be read and studied from the original work itself, not scholarly writings about it. He also realized Classics were a source of reality and virtue or value and standards. They could teach men how to be fully human. (Medieval times believed men were fragile but Petrarch saw men as able and God’s most excellent creation.)
————————————————————-
This led him to the conclusion that one MUST read the classics to gain truth and morals and not for metaphysics like in the MA. BT the truth and morals that come from reading the classics must come from a process. The classical author was writing from what was true for him in that time, place, and situation because of his individual experience. That truth would not necessarily related directly to the reader.

Petrarch’s Views on Man
He also realized Classics were a source of reality and virtue or value and standards. They could teach men how to be fully human. (Medieval times believed men were fragile but Petrarch saw men as able and God’s most excellent creation.) THROUGH HIM, HUMANISM WAS BORN.

“De Viris Illustribus”term-18
was many Biographies from famous men in Livy’s History of Rome. (The humanistic notion that individual men’s accomplishments should be celebrate developed too.)

“Secretum”
Possibly his most humanistic experience occurred when he climbed Mount Ventoux on April 26, 1336. He began to mediate on after life and truth. He look Augustus’ “Confessions” with him which he always turned to for guidance. But that day he began to doubt what he had been believing. From his book “Secretum”, Petrarch’s questions and ideas are written out. He contemplated if one learned from experiences of self and others. This led him to the conclusion that one MUST read the classics to gain truth and morals and not for metaphysics like in the MA. BT the truth and morals that come from reading the classics must come from a process. The classical author was writing from what was true for him in that time, place, and situation because of his individual experience. That truth would not necessarily related directly to the reader. Instead, he created a new teaching method called epistolaries- writing letters to the classical authors to ask questions and answers. (THIS HUMANIZED THE CLASSICAL AUTHORS> THEY WERE REAL AND NOT JUST ABSTRACT) By doing this, one could fit the situation into their own personal life.

Mount Ventoux
Climbed April 26, 1336 and wrote “Secretum”.

epistolaries
writing letters to the classical authors to ask questions and answers. (THIS HUMANIZED THE CLASSICAL AUTHORS> THEY WERE REAL AND NOT JUST ABSTRACT) By doing this, one could fit the situation into their own personal life.

Rhetoric
MOST IMPORTANT ELEMENT TO HUMANISM PETRARCH LEFT THE WORLD was Rhetoric. He believed that if affectively delivered with passion and eloquence, one would have the ability to express truth and others could obtain and understanding of the truth personally. He pointed out that the Classic Cicero embodied this trait.

“On His Own Ignorance”
He also stressed the idea of a positive and active life in community. in His “On His Own Ignorance” Petrarch says all learning that doesn’t make the man good is wrong (borrowed from Plato). Be active in the community and live morally with others.

Petrarch’s Legacy
His legacy lived on well past him for 500 years until the 1800s when the scientific revolution. He believed education must consist of Latin and Greek, history, and literature. Also only for upper class gentlemen. Died in 1374

Humanism
Petrarch inspired many with humanism and many developments of elements came out even more in the Italian Ren.
2 meaning: 1. Pursuit of humanities 2. Stressed value of man
Through the study of history, literature, languages, and ethics, the education focused on Man (identity, dignity, most excellent Of God’s creation); one step below angels; focused on man’s ability not his weakness and fragile state like in the Middle Ages; Nobility was highly look at
Humanism reflected OPTIMISM AND CONFIDENCE IN HUMANS.
Uneducated, lower class people were called Brutish (immoral, not human)

Brutish
immoral, non human, uneducated people. Called this by humanists

Humanists
Rediscovered the classics of Greek and Romans/ Looked at them for inspiration, thoughts, and ideals by studying them to rediscover man’s potential
Valued the classics because of the value it placed on the individual man. Classics achieved highest and deepest human wisdom and morality. They wanted to imitate them and most were elites–so in the Renaissance, an emphasis was placed on the upper class.
They dispised the Middle Ages, looking at it as a time that was different from the Classics with only Negative traits.
Were not anti-christian. Very christian relying on the traditions.
HUMANISTS’ CREED: Believed the classics modeled morality and how to make people good. Man was corrupted by sin but was inherently good. He just needed to be improved through education to understand that evil had consequences.
Followed Plato (most admired of the time): People do wrong only because they are ignorant. Once they understand evil had consequences they would always choose to do good.
The classics taught this philosophy and was the only form of proper education.

Medieval
Despised by the Renaissance Humanists because they were different from the classics. After the fall of Rome, it was believed that civilization fell and in the 1,000s the medieval civilization arose and it was all negative. However, many positive traits came from the Middle ages. Gothic architecture is to this day one of the most beautiful. Literary works such as Dante and Chaucer are still admired and loved. (The Renaissance actually produce very minimal literary works unlike the MA.) Thomas Aquinas’ theological philosophy. Cities reappeared after being absent for almost 500 years. And more technology was produced than in the Early Modern Period like the mechanical clock, centralized heating, soap, and books (Made communication much easier).

Dante
He was a great writer in the Medieval period overlooked by Many renaissance humanists

Chaucer
He was a great writer in the Medieval period overlooked by Many renaissance humanists

Gothic
Architecture style of the middle ages that is still considered one of the most beautiful style

Book
Produced in the medieval period. Made communication much faster and massive

Humanists’ Creed
Believed the classics modeled morality and how to make people good. Man was corrupted by sin but was inherently good. He just needed to be improved through education to understand that evil had consequences.
Followed Plato (most admired of the time): People do wrong only because they are ignorant. Once they understand evil had consequences they would always choose to do good.
The classics taught this philosophy and was the only form of proper education.

Plato
He was the most studied and most admired classic thinker by Renaissance writers. He believed that most people do wrong only because they are ignorant.

Civic Humanism (1400-50)
Began around 1400-1450. Humanists began to apply the classics to public life. Leonardo Bruni’s History of Florence best demonstrates this humanistic movement. He was born in Florence and understood the crisis of 1402 when Milan attempted to invade Florence. This created a strong desire and conviction from the Florentines to defend liberty (Believing the Roman Empire squashed individual ability to freedom). They modeled their fight for liberty off of the Ancient Greek state, Athens. It was vital to imitate the classics in the public life.
1) Have a concern for the energy of the citizens (strength of the state)
2) Superiority of active political life (Petrarch had began the idea, but here it is clearer and fully carried out)
3) Discard Medieval traditions with division of factions (only lasts for a time, however [Medici])
4) Analyze politically how affective the institution is and how does the citizens’ psychology affect the institution.

Leonardo Bruni
Born in Florence. His History of Florence best demonstrates this civic humanism movement. He was born in Florence and understood the crisis of 1402 when Milan attempted to invade Florence. This created a strong desire and conviction from the Florentines to defend liberty (Believing the Roman Empire squashed individual ability to freedom). They modeled their fight for liberty off of the Ancient Greek state, Athens. It was vital to imitate the classics in the public life.

Bruni’s History of Florence
demonstrates this civic humanism movement. He was born in Florence and understood the crisis of 1402 when Milan attempted to invade Florence. This created a strong desire and conviction from the Florentines to defend liberty (Believing the Roman Empire squashed individual ability to freedom). They modeled their fight for liberty off of the Ancient Greek state, Athens. It was vital to imitate the classics in the public life.
1) Have a concern for the energy of the citizens (strength of the state)
2) Superiority of active political life (Petrarch had began the idea, but here it is clearer and fully carried out)
3) Discard Medieval traditions with division of factions (only lasts for a time, however [Medici])
4) Analyze politically how affective the institution is and how does the citizens’ psychology affect the institution.

Neoplatonism (1450-1600)
Often times seen as separate from Humanism or even in reaction against humanism because in the 1440s, many humanists died as well as the church began to publicly attack humanism. Also, the interest in civic life and being active decreased, especially in Florence once the Medici gained power. However, that is not the case. It tried to blend Plato and Christianity. It looked at Plato but developed their own interpretation of the master. It was reality that transcended all senses, exaltation of the mind, and a picture of a created world drawing its being from a hierarchy of greater beings leading up to the one source of all being. The desire to reconcile all systems of thought. It dominated Florentine intellectual life and fostered a renewal interest in studying plato.
Philosophy was affected by trend since that intellectual life decreased. Nontraditional humanists, wealthy families, began to met regularly at the Florentine Academy. Eventually it grew to where professors were nominated. Citizens made an effort to maintain intellect because they were concerned with it. Traditionalist believed civic duty needed to be taught but new generation learn abstractly. They distrusted institutionalized learning and preferred the direct personal relationship that were more conductive to knowledge (early humanists’ thoughts.)
Marsilioficino Ficino was the leading man in the movement. He translated Plato’s Greek word into latin so people could read them along with “theologia Platonica”, a synthesis of Platonism and Christianity. He asked the cosmological question to stress spiritual and human problems, not natural science. (How can realities be seen in individual humans and not just created things?) Only answered things fundamentally human.
–God is immanent or inherent in human personality. This provided creativity of human spirit. Glorification of God in work and direct relation to God to create out of his own resources a thing of beauty. This inspired Michelangelo. ARTIST IS CREATOR AND VISION BRING CLOSER TO GOD. Saw body as a prison of soul and looked forward to death to be freed. Strong concern for morality through learning, morals can be learned. At first supported the reformed friar Savonarola. Ficino believed in tangible interest of moral education. He sent Botticelli’s Primavera to Lorenzo Medici because of the astrological lore and moral allegory provided as a guide to behavior. The beauty and humanity are a gateway to the divine (venice = humanity). This also provided a visual aide for better learning.

Philosophy
Philosophy was affected by trend since that intellectual life decreased. Nontraditional humanists, wealthy families, began to met regularly at the Florentine Academy. Eventually it grew to where professors were nominated. Citizens made an effort to maintain intellect because they were concerned with it. Traditionalist believed civic duty needed to be taught but new generation learn abstractly. They distrusted institutionalized learning and preferred the direct personal relationship that were more conductive to knowledge (early humanists’ thoughts.)

Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499)
was the leading man in the movement. He translated Plato’s Greek word into latin so people could read them along with “theologia Platonica”, a synthesis of Platonism and Christianity. He asked the cosmological question to stress spiritual and human problems, not natural science. (How can realities be seen in individual humans and not just created things?) Only answered things fundamentally human.
–God is immanent or inherent in human personality. This provided creativity of human spirit. Glorification of God in work and direct relation to God to create out of his own resources a thing of beauty. This inspired Michelangelo. ARTIST IS CREATOR AND VISION BRING CLOSER TO GOD.
Strong concern for morality through learning, morals can be learned. At first supported the reformed friar Savonarola. Ficino believed in tangible interest of moral education. He sent Botticelli’s Primavera to Lorenzo Medici because of the astrological lore and moral allegory provided as a guide to behavior. The beauty and humanity are a gateway to the divine (venice = humanity). This also provided a visual aide for better learning.

“theologia Platonica”
Marsilio Ficino write this synthesis of Platonism and Christianity. He asked the cosmological question to stress spiritual and human problems, not natural science. (How can realities be seen in individual humans and not just created things?) Only answered things fundamentally human.

Botticelli
Botticelli’s Primavera to Lorenzo Medici because of the astrological lore and moral allegory provided as a guide to behavior. The beauty and humanity are a gateway to the divine (venus = humanity). This also provided a visual aide for better learning.

N. Machiavelli (1469-1527)
o Most original thinker of time
o Italian writer
o Much long last influence in worth than any other because what said about politics still applied today
o THE PRINCE
• Early 1500s
• Politics is about Power
• Wrote when Italy over taken by France and Spain
• Distressed with loss of independence and liberty
• Wanted to find way where Italians regain freedom and independence from foreign armies
• Proposed asserted Prince/ruler any state must make the gaining of political power and exercise his highest goal
• Believed power and security of state should be supreme consideration in mind of Prince and he shouldn’t allow anything else interfere whatever brings security and power to state, so prince should not rule with mercy, justice, or kindness, and honesty
o If brutality required, Prince be brutal
o Civic of human nature, people motivated by greed of fear
• Prince bribe of threaten people get way and insure safety of state
• Entitled/required to take any measure necessary to insure security of state and meant it equaled war, assassination, bribe, may be generosity, but tougher the better
• ***************NOT VERY CHRISTIAN
Asks what is affective on the government and
praises civic value of paganism
o Attack Machiavelli and Henry VIII attack (Irony…)
• Finer human passion not allowed
o Couldn’t see power for human reasons
o When attacked he said not advocating but just observing and writing down
• Still influential political thinker due to how politics work.
-Very humanistic searching for usable past

The Prince
Early 1500s
• Politics is about power
• Wrote when Italy over taken by France and Spain
• Distressed with loss of independence and liberty
• Wanted to find way where Italians regain freedom and independence from foreign armies
• Proposed asserted Prince/ruler any state must make the gaining of political power and exercise his highest goal
• Believed power and security of state should be supreme consideration in mind of Prince and he shouldn’t allow anything else interfere whatever brings security and power to state, so prince should not rule with mercy, justice, or kindness, and honesty
o If brutality required, Prince be brutal
o Civic of human nature, people motivated by greed of fear
• Prince bribe of threaten people get way and insure safety of state
• Entitled/required to take any measure necessary to insure security of state and meant it equaled war, assassination, bribe, may be generosity, but tougher the better
• ***************NOT VERY CHRISTIAN
Asks what is affective on the government and
praises civic value of paganism
o Attack Machiavelli and Henry VIII attack (Irony…)
• Finer human passion not allowed
o Couldn’t see power for human reasons
o When attacked he said not advocating but just observing and writing down
• Still influential political thinker due to how politics work.

Italian Renaissance Art
Most affective and longest lasting way to share humanistic ideals without a systematic statement. Florence over all had the best artists of the time as well as the Medici who were the greatest art patrons. Eventually at the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th century, Rome took over the art scene when France and Spain invaded. The Papacy was the main vehicle of sponsoring art. The three most supporting popes were Alexander VI, Julius II (Medici), and Leo X.
The Renaissance artist sought to portray realism (most perfect form of the human body) and naturalism (including shading, gravity, movement, perspective, proportion, emotion). These were attempts in order to imitate the ancient works, a very humanistic move. It always focused on humans as well.

F. Brunelleschi (1377-1446)
o Best architect
o From Florence
o Discovered SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVE (used in paintings as well)
• Objects funneled down to vanishing point
• Used in his buildings to achieve the most aesthetic look
o Dome @ Cathedral of Florence
• Most important
• Extremely difficult
Never been achieved since the Pantheon
While the main structure was very gothic, his
design was very humanistic (classical look of
perfect shapes like circled windows, squares,
etc.)
o Inclination in Renaissance arch to use perfect geometric shapes circles, squares…
o Elements in buildings related harmoniously
• Pleasing and human (on human scale, building for humans—Not skyscrapers)

Scientific Perspective
Objects funneled down to vanishing point

Donatello (1386-1466)
o Never been done since ancient world
• Carved human figures and complete round,
independent of anything around it
o Medieval attach to wall for support, beautify larger
project
• He carved figures independently like today
• No reference, relationship to building
• Eye focus on figure self
• ***********ALWAYS HUMAN FIGURES!!!!!!!!!!!!!
• Highly realistic, brutal in rendition in human face.
Resurfaced the Contrapposto too. (makes the body more appealing and life like by standing to rest- one knee carries more weight and the hips and shoulders are slanted

Complete Round
Sculpture that is completely independent from anything. Medieval works were attached to walls, columns, etc. Donatello was the first to go back to the Ancient style of free standing works. The focus is solely on the figure and its beauty.

Contrapposto
makes the body more appealing and life like by standing to rest- one knee carries more weight and the hips and shoulders are slanted

Masaccio (1401-1428)
o One of the earliest
o 1401 born and lived to 27 years 1428
o Little paintings left of his
• Frescoes- wall oil and egg and wet plaster
• Paint became apart of wall
o One important left across river of main city in little dark church
• Darkened and damp so damaged
o LEFT DEEP IMPRINT IN RENAISSANCE ART
• Success in imitation of Nature
Used mathematical rules to govern placement and
proportions and all things are in relation to the
other. He showed gravity as well
• Always after, renaissance art took realistic and naturalistic presentation of people and objects
o Middle Ages highly idealized, not individual
• Round faces…
o Real people painted with individual personality

Virgin and St. Anne
Used mathematical rules to govern placement and
proportions and all things are in relation to the
other. He showed gravity as well

Naturalism
All in relation to another

High Renaissance
This began around 1494 when France invaded Italy. The art scene was moved to Rome, and Popes like Alexander VI, Julius II, and Leo X paid for artists to come to Rome.
It drew achievements of predecessors and created powerful synthesis out of the manifold element of earlier humans
It attacked problems of general concern of men:
1. Human communication
2. Inner structure and order of nature
3. Meaning of mankind
3 greatest artists of this time were Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo
A new style emerged as well.
Mannerism was anti-classicism. It came about after the death of Raphael in 1520. Painters sought to express their own personalities over anything else.
One of the first to do so was Rosso Fiorentino (1494-1540). He used tension and distortion to contrast the balance and harmony of earlier works.
They conveyed perfect expression of universal values and general concepts through concrete details and specific events’ They switched to the personal and individually more than before
What ended the Renaissance? While the counter reformation and the sacking of Rome were factors, it was not the only reason. Painters, and other thinkers of the time began to turn away from the high renaissance because when the two ideas of general and particular came together, they were too fragile to maintain balance.

Mannerism
A new style emerged as well.
Mannerism was anti-classicism. It came about after the death of Raphael in 1520. Painters sought to express their own personalities over anything else.

Rosso Fiorentino
One of the first high renaissance artists to use mannerism was Rosso Fiorentino (1494-1540). He used tension and distortion to contrast the balance and harmony of earlier works.

Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519)
• Leonardo was gifted and most able to life
• Inventive:
o Engineer, designer, musician, architect, painter
o Helicopter, submarine
• Didn’t paint a lot
o Frescoes aging badly but little oil painting
• MOST REMEMBERED AND MOST IMPORTANT PORTRAIT
o Mona Lisa- in Paris in Luve
• Not big
• Woman’s face
• Shadowing so subtle can’t tell how it got from dark to light
• Deepest scientific interest in nature
o 1,000s of drawings- scenes, objects, water
• Worshiped nature= all divine with spark of humanity
o Interested in structure of human body
• Paid grave diggers to deliver corpse to dissect muscles, bones, tendons
• Illegal
• Didn’t work in Rome

Mona Lisa
in Paris in Luve
• Not big
• Woman’s face
• Shadowing so subtle can’t tell how it got from dark to light

Raphael (1483-1520)
• Deeply affect by humanism
-Broadest and most catholic
-wide variety of human emotion
-deep religious feeling of the madonas
-Intense personal individuality in portraits
-complex morals
• Developed conception of many high in nobility spiritualized being.
• Didn’t portray human as doubting creature
o His always wise, noble, temperate
• Look like philosophers
• School of Athens
• Fresco in Pope’s private chapel
• 2 philosophers believed to be Plato and Aristotle deep in talk
o Set in architecture setting with many figures with self in the bottom right possible
• All look like philosophers

School of Athens
Fresco in Pope’s private chapel
• 2 philosophers believed to be Plato and Aristotle deep in talk
o Set in architecture setting with many figures with self in the bottom right possible
• All look like philosophers

Michelangelo (1475-1564)
God is immanent or inherent in human personality. This provided creativity of human spirit. Glorification of God in work and direct relation to God to create out of his own resources a thing of beauty. This inspired Michelangelo. ARTIST IS CREATOR AND VISION BRING CLOSER TO GOD.
• While Raphael painted Pope’s chapel, he painted the Sistine Chapel
o Painter and sculpture was the greatest
• Madonna and Child sculpture tall, big
• So young from Florence didn’t believe he did it so broke in and chiseled and said he did it
• St Peters fasilica
• Always pint and sculpt one thing
o ********HUMAN FIGURES
• Portrayed as something powerful and colossal and magnificent
• Even as teenager
• 60 years of art
– He led the way in manneristic art
-much of his work became models for other high Renaissance artists
-his works were anatomically accurate and had classical rules for proportion and posture.
Sistine Chapel
o Greatest work
o In Vatican
o High room and big
o Pope hires to decorate high walls and ceiling with figures mostly of Old Testament and Greek Mythology
o 10,000 ft^2 and four years to work on all with brushes
• Today it is hard to see due to being 50-60 ft away
• 1990s cleaned it, took 10 years

Sistine Chapel
o Greatest work
o In Vatican
o High room and big
o Pope hires to decorate high walls and ceiling with figures mostly of Old Testament and Greek Mythology
o 10,000 ft^2 and four years to work on all with brushes
• Today it is hard to see due to being 50-60 ft away
• 1990s cleaned it, took 10 years

Northern Renaissance
It spread to the north over the Alps in the 1500s to small pockets in towns and courts of Kings. It was a very narrow phenomenon.
Not much art was produced but what was is some of the best art. Northern Art is more somber and brutally honest, realistic, and pessimistic
Italy showed glorification of humans and the north showed TORTURED SPIRITUAL SOULS
Northern humanism was much more concerned with religious themes than the money. Wanting to reform the church’s faults. Northern artists were not as involved with the church and hierarchical scales like in Italy. They weren’t numb to the abuses of the church and were on a crusade to reform the church.
For example: Urvict Von Hutten (1488-1523) He was
a german humanist and Franconian
Knight that was not interested in
literature but used it as a way to reveal
the church’s material abuse. He wanted
to purify the church and used satires to
defend the Germans from the foreign
papacy from taking their money. He
eventually back Luther.
Italian secular vocab mixing in with religious vocab scared the Northern humanists and thinkers. But they did really like Neoplatonism and many went to Ficino’s school in Florence to study it more.
THE PAPACY WAS NOT POPULAR ON THE EVE OF THE REFORMATION

Urvict Von Hutten (1488-1523)
He was a german humanist and Franconian Knight that was not interested in literature but used it as a way to reveal the church’s material abuse. He wanted to purify the church and used satires to defend the Germans from the foreign papacy from taking their money. He eventually back Luther.

Johann Reuchlin (1455-1522)
He was a german who made two trips to Italy, meeting Fincino in 1482.
He was the greatest Hebrew scholar and in 1506 published the first adequate Hebrew grammar in Europe.
He proved the Donation of Constantine was a forgery with literary tools. It carried out in the ninth century in the Vatican which gave the pope territorial control of the west in the Roman Empire. This took steam out of the Papacy.

Donation of Constantine
He proved the Donation of Constantine was a forgery with literary tools. It carried out in the ninth century in the Vatican which gave the pope territorial control of the west in the Roman Empire. This took steam out of the Papacy.

Erasmus (1466-1536)
o Dutch, greatest
o Pursued greatest realization of Christian life
• Christ as ultimate expression of wisdom
o
Humanist
o Best writer of Latin in his day
o Loved the classics and spent time getting new additions printed to be more accessible to people
o Loved because expressed ideas most important to him
• Tolerance and peace
o More than anyone believed people can be improved morally through education
o Convinced of inherent goodness of humanity
o All evil and injustice disappear if only could bring out inherent goodness of people through proper education
• People taught to see the light of REASON
o Combined Christian beliefs with love of ancients
-He shared the deep religious interests of his northern colleagues but also understood the significance of the Italian humanists
• Philosophy of Christ
• He called the religious view
o Christ ultimate rational philosopher and religious savior
• One the assert values of reason and reasonableness and tolerance.
-In his book, “Praise of Folly”, he combines moral concerns with sensitivity to the variety of human experience and by expressing this illustrates both the strengths and weakness of the humanist position. So he did attempt to balance his belief in Italian humanism with the european thinkers of his day.
o UNINTENTIONALLY PLAY PART IN PREARING WAY FOR PROTESTANT REFORMATION
o Most admired writer of time
–He was one of the first to take full advantage of the printing press, sharing his ideas and beliefs.
• All educated people knew him
o Sharp satires against Catholic clergy for their wealth
• Attacked MONASTICISM because could see monks too often didn’t keep to prayerful life but be “merry”
• Perversion of vocation
• Many people read satires and others on church and prepared some people’s minds to eventually join Luther
o Contemporary of Luther and when Luther broke from Catholic church, Erasmus did not
• In generally, older humanists stay in Catholic church
• Younger Humanists in the North joined the Protestant Reformation

Philosophy of Christ
He called the religious view
o Christ ultimate rational philosopher and religious savior
• One the assert values of reason and reasonableness and tolerance.

“Praise of Folly”
In Erasmus’ book, “Praise of Folly”, he combines moral concerns with sensitivity to the variety of human experience and by expressing this illustrates both the strengths and weakness of the humanist position. So he did attempt to balance his belief in Italian humanism with the european thinkers of his day.

German Ren.
Antiquarian. More delighted in studying the past and the classics for their own sake, but like the English, they failed to bring the classical scholarship to the application of contemporary problems.

Hans Holbein (1497-1543)
• Best portraitists
• Most career at the court of Henry VIII
• Idea of what people look like
• Master of human portrait
o Henry and wives (some) Thomas Moore, Erasmus
• Wasn’t the supreme painter of the north
• Two others were German

M. Grünewald
o GREATEST OF ALL:::::: M. Grünewald
• Greatest of all
• German
• Never had a reputation or name recognized
• Discovered in the last 100 years
• Greats works in Northern Renaissance in small church in small German town
• Oil painting = Isenheim Altarpiece
• 3 stages
• Agony to ecstasy
• For monastery specialized in skin disease
• Questions Christian faith most too scared to ask
• Grief over Christ’s death
• Rise sculpted center piece
o Irrational brought from medical art =immediacy
o “Where are you good Jesus? Where are you? Why have you not healed me?”
• Characteristic, German Renaissance style
• Leak, somber, pained realism
• Painting and wood carving
o An altarpiece
• Carpentry series of paintings
• 8 panels
• 8 ft tall
• Great renaissance of resurrection done in Christian Art
• In Christian art, many of crucifix but not many of resurrection.

Isenheim Altar piece
Oil painting = Isenheim Altarpiece
• 3 stages
• Agony to extocy
• For monastery specialized in skin disease
• Questions Christian faith most too scared to ask
• Grief over Christ’s death
• Rise sculpted center piece
o Irrational brought from medical art =immediacy
o “Where are you good Jesus? Where are you? Why have you not healed me?”
• Characteristic, German Renaissance style
• Leak, somber, pained realism
• Painting and wood carving
o An altarpiece
• Carpentry series of paintings
• 8 panels
• 8 ft tall
• Great renaissance of resurrection done in Christian Art
• In Christian art, many of crucifix but not many of resurrection.

Albrecht Dürer
• German
• Greatest graphic artist with Rembrandt
• Engravers
• Did some
• Paint self as Christ
• Mostly painted himself
• House destroyed by Ally bombing in WWII

French Ren.
They wanted to morally reform the education of the University of Paris. They believed their humanists could fairly be compared to the Italian Renaissance humanists.

F. Rabelais
• Physician
• Wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel
• Serves as vehicle to express love of life and acceptance all things natural sarcasm towards superstition and bigotry
• 2 giants bash way through life eating drinking and sleeping with women and making fun of monks
• Believed every natural human instinct healthy, good, be pursued.

Gargantua and Pantagruel
Serves as vehicle to express love of life and acceptance all things natural sarcasm towards superstition and bigotry
• 2 giants bash way through life eating drinking and sleeping with women and making fun of monks

Michel De Montaigne (1533-1592)
• Different pessimistic outlook
• Remembered better than Renaissance [????]
• French noble man
• 16th century of French religion wars
• Throw him in terrible depression
• Retired from life and lived life in tower on estates
• Ideas contained in famous Essays
• Invented the essay
• All circle around same ideas
o Deep skepticism with regard to all claims of dogma and final religion truth
• “No one can know ultimate religious truth. Not accessible”
o Watch 1000 French men killed over whose interpretation of Christianity was the right one
• Conclusion is that no one religious can see or can have exclusive truth
• Believed God is unknowable but didn’t deny existence of God but said mere human beings couldn’t say anything certain of him
• Each slaughter each other for belief
• Everyone be skeptable of one who pushes “truth”
• Preached tolerance of different views
• No real difference in morals
o Christian and no Christian behavior
o No right consider superior to those not Christian
• A voice alone in own time but later in enlightenment and one became attracted and especially 18th century on weak century for Christianity

Essays
Deep skepticism with regard to all claims of dogma and final religion truth
• “No one can know ultimate religious truth. Not accessible”
o Watch 1000 French men killed over whose interpretation of Christianity was the right one
• Conclusion is that no one religious can see or can have exclusive truth
• Believed God is unknowable but didn’t deny existence of God but said mere human beings couldn’t say anything certain of him
• Each slaughter each other for belief
• Everyone be skeptable of one who pushes “truth”
• Preached tolerance of different views
• No real difference in morals
o Christian and no Christian behavior
o No right consider superior to those not Christian
• A voice alone in own time but later in enlightenment and one became attracted and especially 18th century on weak century for Christianity

English Ren.
They never got to the Italian tradition of human value. It was very superficial in application to traditional intellectual problems, accepting traditional education and inquiry. They failed to investigate values of the classics and their relevance.

John Colet (1466-1519)
• One of the first
• Combined religion with scholarship

Thomas More (1478-1535)
• Best known humanist
• Friend of Erasmus and shared views
• Wrote very influential piece of fiction
• Utopia
o In describing perfect human society and criticizing own English society of greed and cynicism and careerism
o Many wrote utopias but his is the most famous
o Perfect community on island in pacific
o Everyone cooperates for good of all
o No government, prison, taxes
o All naturally practices justice and all happy
• OTHER SIDE OF MORE
• Against will Henry VIII appointed chief executive of government
• Steadfast catholic and at the time protestant making in roads illegally
o Literature, bibles abroad
o Agitated for the overthrow of catholic in England
• Still minority
o As Chancellor he had the job of finding protestants and hunting them down with intensity
• Persecuted them and administering execution of worse of law breakers
o DOESN”T FIT WELL TO SOCIETY IN UTOPIA
• Eventually removed from Chancellor and executed by king because didn’t got with Henry’s divorces to Katherine of Argon to marry someone else and process break England church away from the authority of the pope
• Now under king but still catholic

Utopia
In describing perfect human society and criticizing own English society of greed and cynicism and careerism
o Many wrote utopias but his is the most famous
o Perfect community on island in pacific
o Everyone cooperates for good of all
o No government, prison, taxes
o All naturally practices justice and all happy
—-Civic humanism

William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
• Not thought of as humanist but was the last great one in the Renaissance
• Not much known of him personally
• Left very little of himself behind
• What we do know is muchly interpreted from his works
• Born in Stratford in Western England in 1564
• Wife and kids
o He lived and worked out of London while his family staying Strafford
o He would come home after months away
• Couple of hundred mile journey
• Most gifted in English language
• Literary genius and plays are the greatest ever but have to remember he had VIRTUE of humanism and DEFECTS OF RENAISSANCE HUMANISM
• Like majority, showed only limited concern with practical politics of the day and limited concern with troubles of those not highly born
• No humanist concern of troubles of poor which was the majority of the population
o Social awareness didn’t matter to ruling classes of early modern Europe
• His plays not about ordinary people unless imaginary characters
o Few lowly born (Gravedigger in hamlet but just comic relief)
• Not main character
• Best play was king Leer
• Despite this, greatly appreciated
• Not just master of English language but witty and profound observer of human character and human predicament on world
• Not just observe human trouble but also sympathized with difficulty of human experience on earth
• Best plays are tragedies where sympathies are expressed clearly
• Of all plays the greatest, and longest, King leer
• Read least but least of all tragedies

Claus Sluyter
• Old testament sculpture (Well of Moses)
• Donatello ten when he carved this so shows that no one had ever done something like this before
• Linked prophecies of the old testament to Jesus on the cross
• Agony conveyed

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