reported Homer, French, and Norton (2011) who asserted

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Last updated: June 13, 2019

reported heavier drinking andsuffered more from alcohol-related problems (Wood et al., 2001).  The relationship between heavy drinking andactive pressures may intensify this effect.  On the other hand, heavy drinkers are morelikely to attract drinking encouragement and receive more offers thannondrinkers (Orford et al.

, 2004).A majority of research about theinfluence of overt drinking offers on personal alcohol use has focused on the adolescentpopulation, whereas attention to college drinking has been limited.  In the few studies on university studentpopulations, findings of the effects of explicit overt drinking offers arecontradictory.

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 The possible explanationis that adolescents may regard drinking offers as a friendly gesture and arenot willing to admit the existence of peer pressure.ModelingWith drink modeling,some students want to emulate their peers through observation and by practicingwhat they observe.  This is explainableby the social learning theory where the drinking pattern is defined by thequality of the relationship among peers.  Students may feel the need to begin drinkingjust by observing the outcomes of drinking by others modeling the behavior, or theexciting drinking atmosphere tempts them. Which is, exposure to social models who drink heavily increases thechances of drinking among college students. More importantly, unlike overt peer pressure, which produces an increasein drinking immediately, modeling could stimulate future drinking imitationeven when the modeling behavior is absent (Bandura, 1986)(Bandura A. , 1977).

 This was evident in the research ofBalsa, Homer, French, and Norton (2011) who asserted that female students weremore affected by modeling as compared to male students.  Bartholow et al. (2003) conducted alongitudinal study whose results indicated that there was a strong positivecorrelation between exposure to sorority social networks and drinking patternsamong Greek college students.

 Thisimplied that the students regarded as heavy drinkers, were more exposed tofraternity social networks and they were involved in the same behavior.  Meaning, drinking behaviors of immediatemodels serve as a significant predictor for drinking in college (Bartholow, 2003).  Additionally, Kremer and Levy(2008) conducted a cross-sectional study that indicated that it was likely thata college male student that shares a room with a drunkard is likely to imitate themand adopt some drinking habits, affecting the student’s college grade pointaverage.  Finally, a study conducted byLeng et al. (2009) showed that over 43 percent of Chinese college students initiatedtheir drinking through observing their friends’ lifestyle.

Social NormsWhen discussingdrinking norms, how much a student drinks and how often is perceiveddifferently amongst students.  In a studyconducted by Miller, Prinstein, and Esposito-Smythers (2014) that consideredsection effects and socialization effects, it emerged that students who hadexperienced binge drinking pre-college were likely to connect with students ofsimilar behavior at college and become best friends.  Behaving in concert with the perceived socialnorms is a way of showing an individual’s affiliation to the group.

  As a result, the drinking “culture”would escalate into alcohol dependency and consistency of associated effects.  Nonetheless, gender was found not to be themain factor towards selection effect. Similarly, the study of socialization effect indicated that the studentswho had experienced binge drinking pre-college were likely to have escalatedlevels of the same through their friends who were drinkers regardless of theirgender (Miller, Prinstein, and Esposito-Smythers, 2014).  However, Balsa, Homer, French, and Norton (2011)suggested that male drinkers were more likely to indulge in alcoholism for thesole purpose of conforming to the drinking norm than women.

  Their study also indicated that

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