reported Homer, French, and Norton (2011) who asserted

reported heavier drinking and
suffered more from alcohol-related problems (Wood et al., 2001).  The relationship between heavy drinking and
active pressures may intensify this effect.  On the other hand, heavy drinkers are more
likely to attract drinking encouragement and receive more offers than
nondrinkers (Orford et al., 2004).

A majority of research about the
influence of overt drinking offers on personal alcohol use has focused on the adolescent
population, whereas attention to college drinking has been limited.  In the few studies on university student
populations, findings of the effects of explicit overt drinking offers are
contradictory.  The possible explanation
is that adolescents may regard drinking offers as a friendly gesture and are
not willing to admit the existence of peer pressure.

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With drink modeling,
some students want to emulate their peers through observation and by practicing
what they observe.  This is explainable
by the social learning theory where the drinking pattern is defined by the
quality of the relationship among peers.  Students may feel the need to begin drinking
just by observing the outcomes of drinking by others modeling the behavior, or the
exciting drinking atmosphere tempts them. 
Which is, exposure to social models who drink heavily increases the
chances of drinking among college students. 
More importantly, unlike overt peer pressure, which produces an increase
in drinking immediately, modeling could stimulate future drinking imitation
even when the modeling behavior is absent (Bandura,
A. , 1977).
 This was evident in the research of
Balsa, Homer, French, and Norton (2011) who asserted that female students were
more affected by modeling as compared to male students.  Bartholow et al. (2003) conducted a
longitudinal study whose results indicated that there was a strong positive
correlation between exposure to sorority social networks and drinking patterns
among Greek college students.  This
implied that the students regarded as heavy

drinkers, were more exposed to
fraternity social networks and they were involved in the same behavior.  Meaning, drinking behaviors of immediate
models serve as a significant predictor for drinking in college (Bartholow,

Additionally, Kremer and Levy
(2008) conducted a cross-sectional study that indicated that it was likely that
a college male student that shares a room with a drunkard is likely to imitate them
and adopt some drinking habits, affecting the student’s college grade point
average.  Finally, a study conducted by
Leng et al. (2009) showed that over 43 percent of Chinese college students initiated
their drinking through observing their friends’ lifestyle.

Social Norms

When discussing
drinking norms, how much a student drinks and how often is perceived
differently amongst students.  In a study
conducted by Miller, Prinstein, and Esposito-Smythers (2014) that considered
section effects and socialization effects, it emerged that students who had
experienced binge drinking pre-college were likely to connect with students of
similar behavior at college and become best friends.  Behaving in concert with the perceived social
norms is a way of showing an individual’s affiliation to the group.  As a result, the drinking “culture”
would escalate into alcohol dependency and consistency of associated effects.  Nonetheless, gender was found not to be the
main factor towards selection effect. 
Similarly, the study of socialization effect indicated that the students
who had experienced binge drinking pre-college were likely to have escalated
levels of the same through their friends who were drinkers regardless of their
gender (Miller, Prinstein, and Esposito-Smythers, 2014).  However, Balsa, Homer, French, and Norton (2011)
suggested that male drinkers were more likely to indulge in alcoholism for the
sole purpose of conforming to the drinking norm than women.  Their study also indicated that


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