Research – Section 2

What are the 5 strategies for synthesizing healthcare research
1.Systematic Review
2.Meta-Analysis
3.Integrative Review
4.Metasummary
5.Metasynthesis

Systematic Review: Definition
structured, comprehensive synthesis of quantitative and outcomes studies in a particular healthcare area to determine the best research evidence available for expert clinicians to use to promote an evidence based-practice

Systematic Review: Purpose
summary of research evidence from highly controlled studies about a particular problem in practice

Systemic Review: Research Types
quantitative and outcomes studies with similar methodology usually randomized clinical trials. Also includes meta-analysis and integrative reviews focused on practice problems

Systemic Review: Achieving Analysis
Narrative and Statistical

Meta-Analysis: Definition
study that statistically pools the results from previous studies into a single quantitative analysis that provides one of the highest levels of evidence for an intervention efficacy

Meta-Analysis: Purpose
synthesis or pooling of the results for several previous studies using statistical analysis to determine the effect of an intervention or the strengths or types of relationships among variables

Meta-Analysis: Research Types
Quantitative studies with similar methodology, such as quasi-expermental and experimental studies focused on the effect of an intervention or correlational studies focused on a relationship. Also includes outcomes studies

Meta-Analysis: Achieving Analysis
Statistical

Integrative Review: Definition
includes the identification, analysis, and synthesis of research findings from independent quantitative, outcomes, and qualitative studies to determine the current knowledge (what is know and not known) in a particular area.

Integrative Review: Purpose
synthesis of the findings from a variety of independent studies to determine the current knowledge in an area

Integrative Review: Research Types
quantitative, outcomes, and qualitative studies. Quantitative studies test theory and qualitative studies generate theory so the synthesis also includes the theoretical literature.

Integrative Review:Achieving Analysis
Narrative

Metasummary: Definition
synthesis or summing of the findings across qualitative reports to develop a description of current knowledge in an area

Metasummary: Purpose
quantitative oriented aggregation or synthesis of qualitative research findings to sum the findings across reports in a target area

Metasummary: Research Types
summarizes existing qualitative studies and provides basis for metasynthesis

Metasummary: Achieving Analysis
Narrative

Metasynthesis: Definition
provides a fully integrated, novel description or explanation of a target event or experience versus a summary review of that event or experience

Metasynthesis: Purpose
integration of qualitative study findings that offers a novel interpretation of findings that is the result of interpretive transformations far removed from these findings as given in the research reports

Metasynthesis:Research Types
use of original qualitative studies and metasummairies to produce synthesis

Metasynthesis:Achieving Analysis
Narrative

Strongest to Weakest Research Evidence
1.Systematic Review of Experimental Studies(RCT)
2.Meta-Analysis of Experimental (RCT), Quasi-Experimental, and Outcomes Studies
3.Integrative Review of Experimental (RCT), Quasi-Experimental, and Outcomes Studies
4.Single Experimental Study (RCT)
5.Single Quasi-Experimental Study
6.Meta-Analysis of Correlational Studies
7.Integrative Reviews of Correlational and Descriptive Studies
8.Qualitative Research Metasynthesis and Measummaries
9.Single Correlational Study
10.Single Qualitative or Descriptive Study
11.Opinions of respected authorities based upon clinical evidence, reports of expert committees

RCT
randomized clinical trials

Initial Critical Appraisal Guidelines
1.What type of quantitative study was conducted? descriptive, correlational, quasi- experimental, or experimental
2.Can you identify the following sections in the research report: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussions
3.Were the steps of the study clearly identified?
4.Were any of the steps of the research process missing?

Quantitative Research
a formal, objective, rigorous, systematic process for generating numerical information about the world

Why is quantitative research conducted?
to describe new situations, events, or concepts; examine relationships among variables; and determine the effectiveness or treatments in the world

4 Types of Quantitative Research
1.Descriptive
2.Correlational
3.Quasi-Experimental
4.Experimental

Single Quantitative Review Study vs Systematic Review

Meta-Analysis vs Integrative Review

Literature Review
summary of theoretical and empirical sources to generate a picture of what is known and not known about a particular problem

2 types of Literature Review in Quantitative Research
1.Major Literature Review: performed at the beginning of the research process(before research is conducted);
2.Limited Review: conducted after the study is complete to identify studies published since the original literature review

Purpose of a Literature Review in Quantitative Research
to direct the planning and execution of a study and it’s content is included in writing the research report; relevant sources are cited in the Intro,Methods, Results, and Discussion sections, therefore includes both theoretical and data-based sources that document the current knowledge of the problem studied

In Qualitative research the purpose of literature review varies amongst the…
types of studies to be conducted

Purpose of the Literature Review: Phenomenological
to compare and combine findings from the study with the literature to determine current knowledge of a phenomenon

Purpose of the Literature Review: Grounded Theory
to explain, support, and extend the theory generated in the study

Purpose of the Literature Review: Ethnographic
to provide a background for conducting the study, as in quantitative research

Purpose of the Literature Review: Historical
to develop research questions and provide a source of data in the study

Relevant Databases
-Electronic Databasis:CINAHL, MEDLINE, psychINFO
-National Library Sites:Conhrane Library, NLH
-EBP Organizations: NGC, NICE

Literature Search Strategies
I have no f’ing clue because the library women talked for too long. Type in keywords, use ***, refine searches???