Romantic Era

A figure of speech in which something is referred to by using the name of something that is associated with it.ex.”London 1802″, William Wordsworth – The sword represents the British Army

An artistic and intellectual movement originating in Europe in the late 18th Century and characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual’s expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion against established social rules and conventions.ex. “My Heart Leaps Up”, William Wordsworth

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Visually descriptive or figurative language is used to form a mental picture or image.

ex. “She Walks in Beauty”, Lord Byron – woman

a style of expressing yourself in writingex. “My Heart Leaps Up”, John Keats – Romantic genre

ballad stanza
A four-line stanza, known as a quatrain, consisting of alternating eight- and six-syllable lines.ex. “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”, Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Using words that imitate the sound they denote.

ex.”The murmurous haunt of flies on summer eves,” in “Ode to a Nightingale”,John Keats

The emotional tone or background of a piece of literature.ex.”My Heart Leaps Up”, John Keats – romantic

The repetition of similar vowels in the stressed syllables of successive words.ex.”Of beechen green,” in “Ode to a Nightingale”, John Keats

The repetition of sounds in two or more words or phrases that appear similar to eachother, especially their endings.

ex.”Thy voice, and suddenly grow grey with fear,/And tremble and despoil themselves: O hear!” in “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”, Samuel Taylor Coleridge

internal rhyme
Rhyme between words that occurs within a single line of poetry.ex.”In mist or cloud, on mast or shroud” or “Whiles all the night through fog-smoke white” in “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”, Samuel Taylor Coleridge

A mood or atmosphere is the feeling that a literary work conveys to readers. Mood is created through the use of plot, character, the author’s descriptions, etc.ex. “My Heart Leaps Up”, John Keats – romantic

figurative language
Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid.ex.

“we have given our hearts away,” in “The World is Too Much With Us”, William Wordsworth

A story or narrated account.ex. “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”, Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Someone who tells a story.ex. “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”, Samuel Taylor Coleridge – The Mariner

rhyme scheme
The pattern of rhyme in a poem.

ex. section one of “Ode to the West Wind”, Percy Shelley – aba bcb cdc ded ee

A lyric poem with complex stanza forms.ex. “Apostrophe to the Ocean”, Lord Byron

terza rima
A verse form with a rhyme scheme: aba bcb cdc, etc.ex.”Ode to the West Wind”, Percy Shelley – aba bcb cdc ded ee

A fixed number of lines of verse forming a unit of a poem.ex. used in “Ode to a Nightingale”, John Keats

A verse line of poetry having five metrical feet.

ex.”London 1802″, William Wordsworth

iambic pentameter
A line of poetry that contains five iambic feet; an iamb is a foot consisting of an unaccented syllable followed by an accented syllable.ex.”London 1802″, William Wordsworth

My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold
Author:William Wordsworth Form:poemTime Period: Romantic Style: rhyme,imagery, parallelism, paradoxSummary: The speaker is in awe of a rainbow and he is admiring how it was the same when he was a boy and when he’s a man and how he hopes it will be the same in the future. He also hopes that it will stay the same when he is older otherwise he would like to die. He thinks this because the feeling he gets when he sees the rainbow is so incredible.

Theme:The love of nature.

London 1802
Author: William Wordsworth Form:SonnetTime Period: Romantic Style:allusion, rhyme scheme, simileSummary: Wordsworth is calling upon the dead poet Milton, because he believes that England is in need of him. The narrator or speaker of the poem believes thatthat Milton could give England “manners, virtue, freedom, power,” for his soul was like a star, his voice had a sound as pure as the sea, and he moved through the world with “cheerful godliness,” laying upon himself the “lowest duties.”Alludes to Milton for help to clear London of corruptions and help return it to its previous virtues(like when Milton was around)Theme:How immoral people become when they lose their connection to nature

The World is Too Much With Us
Author: William Wordsworth Form:SonnetTime Period: Romantic Style:figurative language, meter, rhythm, allusionSummary:The speaker believes that humans are out of tune with nature. They accuse people of having lost their connection to nature and to everything meaningful.

The speaker wishes that he were a pagan raised according to a different vision of the world where he might see, “Proteus rising from the sea,” and Triton “blowing his wreathed horn.” which is a sight he wishes to see. While people of his age are, “Getting and spending,” He says that even when the sea “bares her bosom to the moon” and the winds howl, humanity is still out of tune, and looks on uncaringly at the spectacle of the storm.Theme: People have lost their connection with nature and meaningful things.

The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
Author: Samuel Taylor Coleridge Form: BalladTime Period: Romantic Style: internal rhyme, allegory, symbols, imagerySummary: Story of a mariner who is cursed to life forever and tell his story about a voyage to a wedding guest as his penance for killing an Albatross. He is telling about the reason he got cursed (killing the albatross).

Theme:Love all thingsand live with nature in harmony. Because God made everything love everything.

Apostrophe to the Ocean
Author: Lord Byron Form: OdeTime Period: Romantic Style: rhyme, rhythm, paradox, apostropheSummary: Poem about the Ocean and its powers. According to the speaker the ocean cannot be affected by anything.

Even sinking ships which bubble for a while and eventually sink. It is so strong that battleships look like toys upon it. It is also seen as omnipotent like God. In the end it is compared as a horse would be, it is reliable yet a wild animal which can not be tamed, and can turn at any moment.Theme: The Ocean might be fun sometimes yet it’s vast powers should be kept in mind.

She Walks in Beauty
Author: Lord Byron Form: poemTime Period: Romantic Style:Summary:The speaker is watching a woman who is his cousin’s wife.

He is not envying his cousin, he is simply admiring the woman. He thinks she looks beautiful in the candlelight.The woman has black hair, and he thinks it’s beautiful. He also believes that the pleasant expression on her face is another reason why she looks beautiful. and that her smile is innocent.Theme:The woman’s inner feelings are what make her look beautiful and create an aura around her.

Also, beauty is found in the simplest of things, like candlelight, and a smile.

Ode to the West Wind
Author: Percy Shelley Form: lyric poemTime Period: Romantic Style: juxtaposition, apostrophe, simile, stanza, personificationSummary: The wind is the vehicle for spreading the word of reform and change. It talks about birth and death, cloud formations, the ocean, and especially the speaker’s longing to be identified and his relationship with the wind. Theme:The poet’s desire to be recognized as great and the power of the wind to scatter the words he has written about his ideals and causes. It is also about, enduring the power of human expression.

Author: Percy Shelley Form: SonnetTime Period: Romantic Style: Allusion, simile, imagery, iambic pentameter, caesuraSummary: The speaker of this poem recalls recalling meeting a traveler “from an antique land,” who told him of the ruins of a statue in the desert of his native country. There were two vast legs of stone stand without a body, and near them a humongous crumbling stone head lies “half sunk” in the sand. There was a “sneer of cold command” on the statue’s face, the speaker was told by the traveler. This indicated that the sculptor could tell what the real personality was and the real passions of the Ozymandias, the subject of the sculpture.

The words appear on the statue’s pedestal, “My name is Ozymandias!” However nothing remains around the decaying ruin of the statue, only the “lone and level sands,” which stretch out around it, far away. Theme: If you are full of yourself or you will have a bad legacy in the future or be forgotten.

Ode to a Nightingale
Author: John Keats Form: OdeTime Period: Romantic Era Style: Summary: The speaker wants to forget his pains, and fears of death. He wants to be free like the nightingale.

Drinking wine and being in a state of happiness. The speaker is also contemplating death and suicide. He believes death will be pleasurable.He wishes he were as carefree as the bird, not having to worry about mortality, time passage. Although he realizes that writing poetry allows him to soar like the bird, who everyone through time has heard sing, transcending those fears.

He will make the bird immortal through writing as well. I the end he is contemplating whether he should commit suicide or if he should live, knowing he will die young.Theme: Death is inevitable, whether it be through suicide or naturally. However there is also the theme of life versus death, which he knows will come sooner then he would like.

On First Looking at Chapman’s Homer
Author: John Keats Form: SonnetTime Period: Romantic Style: use of caesura, octave, sestet, imagery, rhythm, personification, volta, diction, allusion and alliteration.Summary: The speaker expresses his delight in discovering the work of Homer. He metaphorically dramatizes his literary jaunts as “travel[ing] in realms of gold.” He claims he has explored many of the “western islands” off the coast of Greece . In the second quatrain, the speaker talks about how Homer held court in those places. Homer narrated his tales, telling them over and over again to breathless audiences. Then the Speaker claims that he had not been able to appreciate the magnificence of Homer’s poetry.

However then, he saw translation by George “Chapman speak[ing] out loud and bold.” He then dramatizes the deep awe he has experienced and picks out two other phenomena to help him through the new translation.One is described like the feeling to an astronomer who has just watched “a new planet ” come into sight. The excitement of the astronomer described mirrors the speaker’s excitement. This is basically a comparison to finding Homer’s great writing.

Theme: The influence of poetry.

When I Have Fears That I May Cease to Be
Author: John Keats Form: SonnetTime Period: Romantic Style: parallelism, simile, symbolism, Summary: The speaker starts off with “WHEN I have fears that I may cease to be,” giving foreshadowing to the topic of the poem. He fears that he will soon die, because of the recent death of his brother and he fears that he will also die soon.He fears that he will not have the time to fulfill his position as a writer. He fears that he will not be able to have a huge romance.

He wants to have love and fame yet he knows he will die soon and is basically upset because of it.Theme: Fears he won’t get to do all he wants, won’t get to enjoy his love with a girl, or be able to become famous.

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