A form of metaphor in which animals, ideas, things, etc.
, are represented as having human qualities (ie, The drums were weeping today.)
main idea or message
a statement that is seemingly contradictory or opposed to common sense and yet is perhaps true.
a figure of speech in which someone absent or dead or something non-human is addressed as if alive and present and could reply. “Twinkle, twinkle little star, how I wonder what you are?”
a paradox reduced to two words, usually in an adjective-noun (“eloquent silence”) or adverb-adjective (“inertly strong”) relationship, and is used for effect, to emphasize contrasts, incongruities, hypocrisy, or simply the complex nature of reality. Examples: wise fool, ignorantly learned, laughing sadness, pious hate, jumbo shrimp.
the writer’s attitude toward his readers and his subject; his mood or moral view.
A writer can be formal, informal, playful, ironic, and especially, optimistic or pessimistic.
the atmosphere created through the author’s diction: gloomy, bright, unsettling, etc.
comparison is made between two seemingly unrelated subjects. “He was drowning in money” “Life is just a bowl of cherries.”
something that on the surface is its literal self but which also has another meaning or even several meanings. For example, a sword may be a sword and also symbolize justice.
a deliberate exaggeration or overstatement.
“I have a million things to do today”
a comparison between two objects using the words “like” or “as” Ex: She was as mad as a rabid dog.
a figure of speech that employs a word, or occasionally, a grouping of words, that imitates, echoes, or suggests the object it is describing, such as “bang”, “click”, “fizz”, “hush” or “buzz” and not “moo” “quack” or “meow”, since animals do not create those sounds.
repetition of an initial consonant sound: “Betty Botter bought some butter”
repetition of vowel sounds in a sequence of nearby words: “The monster spoke in a low mellow tone” has assonance in its repetition of the “o” sound.
a stanza consisting of two successive lines of verse; usually rhymed
a fixed number of lines of verse forming a unit of a poem
the pattern of rhymes in a poem. This is indicated by a different letter of the alphabet for each new rhyme of the stanza.
language that appeals to any sense or any combination of the senses.
a stanza with 4 lines
words that rhyme within the same line
10 syllables in each line, alternating between unstressed and stressed syllables
lines of poetry without any specific rhyme or meter
a verse form consisting of unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter
a stanza containing six lines
a stanza containing eight lines
a stanza containing three lines
the breaking of a syntactic unit or a clause over two or more lines without a punctuated pause
the repetition of consonant sounds in a sequence of nearby words.
“From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven’s gate” has the repeating sound of the “s” sound.
an extended metaphor; it has at least two levels of meaning: the literal level of the immediate narrative and the political, historical, philosophical or moral commentary the author intends to be recognized