Romanticism (19th Century Literature)

Topic: ArtPaintings
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Last updated: April 26, 2019
Romanticism
refers to a movement in art, literature, and music during the 19th century.

imagination, intuition, idealism, inspiration, individuality
What were the 5 “I”s that characterized Romanticism?

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imagination
This was a backlash against the rationalism characterized by the Neoclassical period or “Age of Reason.”British writer Samuel Taylor Coleridge called it “intellectual intuition.”

reason
What was imagination emphasized over?

intuition
Feeling and instincts, over reason.

British Romantic William Wordsworth described poetry as “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings.” Cannot control it.

idealism
Perfect. The Romantic artist, musician, or writer, is an “inspired creator” rather than a “technical master.” Many felt inspired in nature. What this means is “going with the moment” or being spontaneous, rather than “getting it precise.”

inspiration
Many felt this in nature. What this means is “going with the moment” or being spontaneous, rather than “getting it precise.

The Romantic artist, musician, or writer, is an “inspired creator” rather than a “technical master.”
What was believed about inspiration?

individuality
Reject conformity to society. During this time period, Women’s Rights and Abolitionism were taking root as major movements. Walt Whitman, a later Romantic writer, would write a poem entitled “Song of Myself”: it begins, “I celebrate myself…

the individual
What did Romantics celebrate?

Inner Nature
human, presence of nature in the human soul

Outer Nature
Outdoors, earth, trees, etc.

The publication of Lyrical Ballads by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1792
What is considered the beginning of Romanticism?

lyrical
emotional poem

ballad
story

lyrical ballads
emotional stories

AliveChangingGrowingDiverseCreative
Why did Romantics think of the world as an organism?

all arts
What was Romanticism a movement across?

Middle Ages
What did the arts embrace themes prevalent to?

Neoclassical Art
Rigid, severe, and unemotional; it hearkened back to ancient Greece and Rome

Romantic Art
Emotional, deeply-felt, individualistic, and exotic. It has been described as a reaction to Neoclassicism, or “anti-Classicism.”

supernatural and gothic themes
What did writers explore?

nature
What did writers write about?

America
Where did Romanticism most strongly impact literature?

a dead person
What is “She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways” describing?

lyrical ballad
What type of poem is “She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways”?

iambic pentameter
What is the meter is “She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways”?

Everything beautiful someday dies.
What is the theme in “She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways”?

outer nature
What is the expression of Romanticism in “She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways”?

The author is describing a day dream.

What is “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” describing?

lyrical ballad
What type of poem is “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud”?

tetrameter
What is the meter of “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud”?

The author is describing his perfect world or imaginations.
What is the theme of “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud”?

Inner Nature
What is the expression of Romanticism in “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud”?

We take nature for granted and ignore human and mother nature and are paying attention to consumerism and acquiring material things.
What is “The World is too Much with Us” saying?

lyrical ballad
What type of poem is “The World is too Much with Us”?

octave and sestet
What is the meter of “The World is too Much with Us”?

We are disconnected from nature.
What is the theme of “The World is too Much with Us”?

Outer Nature
What is the expression of Romanticism in “The World is too Much with Us”?

John Keats
He lived a brief and sorrowful life and died of tuberculosis. In his twenties his brother and fiancée died from tuberculosis.

emotion
What influenced John Keats?

ode
a specific kind of lyric poem that is a tribute to someone or something

First scene in Ode on a Grecian Urn
Observing the scene and asking rhetorical questionsYoung men who could be young godsThey are in pursuit for young maidensScene takes place in a forestMusicians playing musicLiteral pursuit represented on the urn represents the emotional pursuit

musicians
What provokes emotion in the first scene in Ode on a Grecian Urn?

Second Stanza of Ode on a Grecian Urn
Talks about mucisiansMelodies that we can hear is sweet but unheard melodies are better

Appeal to our imagination and can make it more beautiful and appealing
Why are unheard melodies better in the Second Stanza of Ode on a Grecian Urn?

Trees will never die and experience perpetual life and springTrees will always be greenYoung will always be in pursuit of new loveMusic will always playArt can capture a beautiful moment in time
What does Keats mean by new life in the second stanze of Ode on a Grecian Urn?

don’t worry; the moment beforehand is more beautiful and thrilling
What is said about the bold lover that can never kiss the young maiden in the second stanza of Ode on a Grecian Urn?

Third Stanza of Ode on a Grecian Urn
Says how lucky the people in this scene are

Fourth Stanza in Ode on a Grecian Urn
Small town and all of the citizens are leaving and they are led by a priest with a dressed up cow

stuck in the moment
Why will the town remain empty forever and why will the cow never die in the fourth stanza of Ode on a Grecian Urn?

Fifth Stanza of Ode on a Grecian Urn
Praise of the urn”Beauty is truth, truth beauty,” – that is all Ye know on earth, and ye need to know

ImaginationNatureLove of beautyPerception over observation
What were the characteristics of Romanticism in Ode on a Grecian Urn?

Ozymandias
A poem that is a Romantic Sonnet and the rhyme scheme does not fit.

Percy Shelley
He wrote Ozymandias and was referred to as the perfect Romantic poet of that era.

Tends to write about social justice issuesShows concern for people who oppressed under a leader whose only concerns were for himself
How did Percy Shelley show his concern for social justice?

Romantic Sonnet
A sonnet that does not completely follow the rules

reason
imagination over _________

reason
emotion over _________

rules
freedom over _________

observation
perception over _________

teaching
pleasure over _________

logic
feeling over _________

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