Romanticism American Literature Test

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Last updated: May 11, 2019

Fireside poets
Holmes, Lowell, Whittier, and Longfellow, Emerson, Melville

Mostly wrote poems that were
morally uplifting and often sentimental

“A psalm of life” by
Longfellow

celebrates
an optimistic view of life and reflects the aims of Americans at the time

Longfellow uses
repetition and meter

how many lines in a stanza
4 (quatrain)

rhyme scheme
ABAB

should live in the _ and forget about the _
present; afterlife

the soul that sleeps is
dead

what is not the goal
the grave

we do not have a destiny of happiness or sadness, but simply moving toward
self-improvement that finds us “farther than today” (we are never still)

time is _
short

our hearts are beating like
drums (strong and brave) as we head toward the grave

compares life to a
bivouac (encampment of troops)

extended military metaphor:
an army marching to the grave: we will be heroes in the battle of life!

let the past go and act in the _
present

lives of great men remind us that we can
make our lives sublime (of high spiritual, moral, or intellectual worth)

we too can leave footprints on the sand of time and be
models for others

compares life to a solemn _
open ocean (main)

others will follow in our footsteps when they are in _
trouble (“forlorn and shipwrecked brother”)

must be up and doing things with a heart ready for anything while we wait for our fate. we must still achieve and pursue, and learn to _ and _
labor and wait

“To a Waterfowl” by
Bryant

addressing something as if it were actually there
apostrophe

what time of day? describe.
the dew is falling, sun setting (last steps of the day) — nighttime

he is similar to the bird because both are _ and _
alone and always changing

a _ might try to kill the waterfowl
fowler (hunter)

are you looking for the _, _, or _
marshy edge of a lake, bank of a river, or shore of the ocean with “rocking billows”

there is a _ that teaches thy way. you may be wandering _ but you are not _
POWER; alone, lost

the bird does not stop even though he is _ and the night is near
weary

when you want to quit and you know you are almost there, you can be encouraged by remembering
where you are going

soon shalt thou find a _
summer home

repetition of the word _
soon : soon that toil shall end; soon shalt thou find a summer home, and rest

the bird is going toward its
nest

can no longer see the bird, but he will never forget _
the lesson you taught me

is speaking
TO the waterfowl

there is always someone leading him to where he will be _
happy

the God who guides you through the boundless sky, he will
lead my steps aright as I tread alone on the long way

the speaker is _ and on a _
unnamed; beach

how is it romantic? imtive emotional, nature, common man
imaginative emotional, nature, common man

qualities of a romantic piece
emotion, imagination, intuition, nature, country (instead of city), medieval past (king arthur, robin hood), individual, common man

“The Cross of Snow” by
Longfellow

type of poem?
Italian sonnet (14 lines of Iambic pentameter) • octave (2 quatrains) – somber tone• sestet – contemplates, doesn’t want to give up his grief

rhyme scheme of the octave
abbaabba

rhyme scheme of the sestet
c d e c d e (what Longfellow used) or cdcdcd

longfellow’s wive
died in a fire

in the long sleepless watches of the night, _ looks at me from the wall
the gentle face of one long dead (picture of his wife)

where did she die?
here in that room

emphasizes her _
innocence (halo of pale light)

never a soul more white then hers went through
martyrdom (saintlihood)

nor can in books be read the _ of a life more _
LEGEND; benedight

compares his heart to
the Mount of Holy Cross

the mountain displays a
cross of snow upon its side

such is the cross I wear upon my
heart

what POV?
1st person

how long has it been since she died?
18 years

although the seasons are changing,
he is changeless since the day she died (grief never goes away)

“the tide rises, the tide falls” by
Longfellow

repetition of
the tide rises the tide falls

pov
3rd person

the traveler hastens toward _ along the _
town; beach

the waves of the sea erase (efface) the
footsteps in the sand

nature goes on, the horse is _ as the _ calls
stamp and neigh; hostler

the day returns but nevermore _
returns the traveler to the shore (he dies)

oceans lend to
meditation

_ of humans, _ of nature (live life to _)
impermanence; ongoing; the fullest!

tone
accepting, somber

learning through
observation

using nature as
encouragement

rhyme scheme
a a b b a

time of day
twilight

“The Chambered Nautilus” by
Holmes

_ on the life and death of the nautilus
meditation

how one learns from _
nature

the nautilus can be a
“sailor”

what kind of poetry?
lyric (expresses emotion)

ship of pearl
pretty, valuble, pearl-colored

the ship of pearl represents
the pearl-like shell holding the nautilus (pearl ship holding the sailor)

open part of the shell:
“purpled wings”

in gulfs enchanted, where _
the siren sings (greek, exotic)

the coral reefs lie _
bare

found the shell along the beach and it is _
wrecked!

grows by
every cell in the shell getting larger

metaphorically compares the shell to a _
house

eventually the nautilus will move out =
heaven is our real home, we are only here temporarily

frail tenant =
our spiritual state can be fragile

the sea represents
our home

ocean represents
“sea of life”

let each new temple be
“nobler than the last”

rhyme scheme
aabbbcc

form of the poem
iambic pentameter

“old Ironsides” by
Holmes

_ to save the US constitution
propoganda

rhyme scheme
abcbdefe differs (alternating tetrameter and trimeter lines)

1st 2 stanzas
how much the ship has done and how long it has been sailing

last stanza
demise of the ship (let her go down nobly in the “mighty deep” and give her to the “god of storms” — let it sink in the storm

the ship is a symbol of
patriotism and freedom

the ship is a place where
many lives have been lost (heroes blood shed)

“snowbound: A winter Idyl” by
Whittier

the light of the day is
cheerless, darkly circled, and sadder

form
iambic tetrameter

rhyme scheme
aabbccddeeff..

.

nightly chores they did
brought in wood, littered the stalls, raked the grass for the cows,

almost like
getting ready for war

the clothes-line posts resembled
tall and sheeted ghosts

everything took marvellous shapes: strange _ and _
domes and towers

compares to exotic things such as
a chinese roof and pisa’s leaning miracle

their father was all _
business

told them,
“boys, a path!”

dug a tunnel in the snow that they compared to
alladin’s wonderful cave

all of the animals take on roles in _
alladin

the patriarch of the sheep was like egypt’s
amum (god) roused from sleep

who is the king-like figure?
???

sounds they hear
shrieking of the wind

moaning _ swaying
tree-boughs

on the glass of the windows the unmeaning beat of the ghostly finger-tips of _
sleet

could not hear church bells, neighbors, or _
the music of the brook (which had grown to have almost a human tone because they were acquired to it)

they light a fire that blazes up and then begins to die down so that it is a _
rosy bloom

the fire reflects off of the snow and it looks like
the fire is outside

imagery of warmth and imagery of _ vs _
danger vs safety

whispers an old rhyme about
witches making tea when fire outdoors burns merrily

it seems the moonlight (that shone at its full on the white snow) only shines to
make the coldness visible

stanza 10 – simile
hair as gray as was my sire’s that winter day

———
———-

the romantics celebrated
the glories of the individual spirit, the emotions, and the imagination as basic elements of human nature

the _ inspired the romantics more than the _
splendors of nature; fear of God

some of them felt a fascination with the _
supernatural

most popular american writers of the time
Longfellow, Irving

their works exhibit a typical romantic preoccupation with _, _, and _
atmosphere, sentiment, and optimism

the first really distinctive american literature came from the _s
transcendentalists

transcendentalism was derived from
german romanticism

based on the belief that
“transcendent (mystical, spiritual) forms” of truth exist beyond reason and experience

Emerson said that every individual is capable of
discovering this higher truth on his or her own, through intuition (instinct, feeling)

quote from emerson
“always do what you are afraid to do”

thoreau militantly turned his back on _
material rewards

devoted his life to the study of _ and _
nature and his own individual spirit

“Self Reliance” by
Emerson

transcendentalism: we are all joined with _ and _
nature and each other

an observation that expresses a general truth about life
aphorism

part of emerson’s appeal was his _ style and _ way with words
poetic style and elegant way with words

“self-reliance” celebrates emerson’s belief in the importance of the _
individual

we are inspired by the same God that inspires _
nature

one should be open to _ing oneself
contradicting

envy is ignorance
you are stupid if you are jealous

imitation is suicide
if you imitate someone else, you are killing yourself

tells people to _ themselves
trust (aphorism)

whoso would be a man must be a _
nonconformist

nothing is sacred but the _ of your won mind
integrity (honesty/honor)

no law can be sacred to me but that of my nature. good and bad are but names trendily _ to this or that
transferable

the only right is what is “after my constitution” or
consistent with my physical and mental nature

the distinction between greatness and meanness (inferiorness) is that
i must do only that which concerns me, not what people think

the great man is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps with _
perfect sweetness in the independence of solitude

a man must know how to estimate a _
sour face

in nature and in our own homes, you must _ and _
do your work and grow

the sour faces of the multitudes, like their sweet faces, have no _, but are put on and off as the wind blows and _s direct
deep cause; newspapers

facial expressions of bystanders can make us feel like we need to be _
conformists

the other terror that scares us from trusting ourself is our _
consistency (we are afraid of the unknown; of doing something different)

emerson criticizes _ consistency that does not allow for _ or _
foolish; change or progress

with consistency the soul has _ to do
nothing

it is good to be misunderstood =
“to be great is to be misunderstood” (contradicting yourself)

admires those who _
speak their mind

——-
——-

transcendentalists:
emerson and thoreau

what is the doorway to truth?
nature

we are all a part of God in this _
oversoul

focuses on the _ human nature
ideal (beyond the physical) perfectability

from “Walden” by
Thoreau (not a diary, rather a retrospective looking back)

famous experiment which he thought of as _ living
essential

this was living _, studying the _ and seeking _
simply, studying the natural world, and seeking truth within himself

walden is a mixture of _, _, and _
philosophy, autobiography, and meditation upon nature

the house had a _ and _ look
clean and airy

went to the woods to live _
deliberately (in an unhurried and thoughtful manner)

wanted to front only the _ facts of life
essential

did not wish to practice _ unless it was completely necessary
resignation (acceptance of something as unavoidable)

wanted to live like the _, in a simple, economical, and disciplined way
Spartans

wanted to live deep and _ out of life
suck all the marrow out of life

most men have hastily concluded that it is the most important purpose of human life on earth to _
glorify God and enjoy him forever

apostrophe:
an honest man has hardly need to count more than his ten fingers

we are determined to be _ before we are _
starved; hungry

could easily do without the
post office

time is but the _
stream i go a-fishin in

we do not have
much time on earth

all the elements are usually _ to me
congenial (agreeable)

like the lake, my serenity is _ but not _
rippled but not ruffled

who are nature’s watchmen?
the wildest animals who do not repose

because we are all in this life together, _ is insignificant
physical distance

every winter the pond becomes
solid to the depth of a foot

the pond becomes _ for 3 months or more
dormant

heaven is _ as well as _
under our feet as well as over our heads

the pond represents
life (hibernation)

spring’s coming is _
instantaneous (no ice left)

the change from winter to spring is a _
memorable crisis

left the woods because
had many more lives to live

the surface of the earth is soft and impressible by _
the feet of men

wishes to go before the mast and on the “deck of the world” for there I could best see the
the moonlight amid the mountains

as he simplifies his life, the laws of the universe will appear
less complex, and solitude will not be solitude, not poverty poverty, nor weakness weakness

metaphor about building _ in the air
castles (dream big and make it happen)

if man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a _
different drummer

life looks poorest when you are
richest

the town’s poor live the most _ lives of any
independent

things do not change;
we change

God will see that you do not want
society if you sell your clothes and keep your thoughts

_ reveals the heavenly lights
humility

life is sweetest near the
bone

metaphor of the bug
???

summer
we live easily are close to the gods

fall
reflection and stirring up experiences gathering together things you have observed

winter
reading, self-discipline, meditation

spring
rebirth, the sun is a morning star, begin life anew (cycle, like holmes)

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