this was a turbulent time period where England changed from a ______ society to a ______ nation
wealth and power
what shifted during this time from the land owning aristocracy to large scale employers
the dreams of the common people and their desire for radical change was a result of the ________________ present in the french revolution
romantic poets showed a deep attachment to ______ and to a pure simple past as a response to the misery and ugliness born out of the ______ revolution
tyranny, factories creativity
dependance on reason and science no longer seemed viable in a world full of ______ and ______. what would prevail?
in a fearful response to the french revolution, the english _____ prohibited all public meetings, suspended habeas corpus and advocates of modern political change were charged with high _____
yet economic and social changes created a desperate need for corresponding political changes, and new social ___ were demanding a voice in government
the population ______ into two classes of capital labor, the large owner or trader and the possession less wage worker, the rich and the poor
claimed to take a hands off approach, but openly sided with wealthy _____ owners and big ____
innadequate wages, long hours of work under harsh discipline in sordid conditions, and the large scale of employment of women and children for tasks that destroyed both the body and the spirit
the results were what?
while the poor were suffering, the landed classes, the industrialists, and many merchants prospered as the British Empire expanded aggressively both westward and eastward. the _____ never set on the british empire
during this time period, the british empire became the most powerful _____ presence in the world
british east india company
what british company ruled the entire indian subcontinent and black slave labor in the west indies generated great wealth for british plantation owners
did writers during this time think of themselves as romantic?
intellectual and imaginative
the spirit of the age was a pervasive _____ and _____ climate
boldness, renaissance, traditional
they described this as a release of energy, experimental ____, and creative power that marked a literary _______ an age of new begginnings when, by discarding _______ procedures and outwon customs, everything was possible.
worsworth, coleridge, byron, shelley, and keats
who were the key poets?
believed that the spurce of all poetry was not in external things, but the individual poet
expresses the poet’s own feelings and temperment
became a primary poetic subject, and poets described natural phenomena with an accuracy of observation that had no earlier match
humble, rustic life, plain styles
______, _______, and ______ style were elevated and the wonder of ordinary things was exalted
lamb, hazlitt, de quincey, austen, scott, and mary shelley
who were the key novelists?Note: the novel wasn’t invented until the 19th century.
these were essentially the first novelists
what were two themes in literature?
especially of a disinherited mind that cannot find a spiritual in its native land
hippy spirituality rather that an orthodox religion
imagination was considered _____ for creating all art
samuel taylor coleridge
british writer ___________ called it intellectual intuition
romanticism placed value on “intuition” or ______ and _______ over reason
______ were important in romantic art
spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling
british poet, wordsworth described poetry as the ______________________________________
belief that we can make the world a better place.refers to any theory that emphasizes teh spirit, mind
language over matter
thought has a crucial role in making the world the way it is
german philosopher, held that the minds perceive the shape of space and time
the romantic artist, musician, or writer, is an _______ rather than a technical master
going with the moment
what this means is “______________” or being spontaneous, rather than “getting it precise”
romantics celebrated the importance and _____ of the individual
womens rights and abolitionism
during this time what two things were taking root as major movements
individiuals, particularly those previosuly considered _____ were applauded and celebrated for their value and suffering
that he was the epitome to romantic literature because of his radical stances on controversial issues. Risked his popularity for his controversial poetry
Drowned in a sudden storm while sailing in Italy Left home at the age of 10, enrolled at Eton College Severely bullied
famous poem for shelley?
skylark is a ___
Born October 21, 1772Youngest of ten childrenFather died when he was ten years old Attended Christ’s college
Then he went to Oxford where he met Robert Southey. They both wanted an agricultural societyThey wrote together and produced the lyrical ballads Took opium and became addicted, was always cold from the damp climates Married Sarah Fricker, they had four children He fell in love with Woodsworth’s sister in law Sara Hutchinson Dr. James Gilman helped him with his opium addiction Died in 1834 from dependence on opium
Uncovered reality and made it known.
He did this by finding the magic of the lime tree bower as evidence of a thinly veiled almighty spirit
what was coleridge’s contribution to romanticism
Wrote the rime of the ancient mariner
most famous poem of coleridge
Left France and his family because of money finished “Michael” At the end of the war he could visit Annete and Caroline He married Mary Hutchinson who was his childhood sweetheart 1813- distributor of stamps Died of pleurisy
his poetry praises the values of the simple individual, the child, the helpless, the working class, and the natural man
what was wordsworths contribution to romanticism
Lines written a few miles above tintern abbey- July 13th 1798
one of the best known works of the English romantic movement
wordsworth’s most famous poem
his life when he was younger
what was the prelude about
Born January 22, 1788 LondonCalled the limping devil, had a deformed right foot and legAttended Trinity College in Cambridge Considered bisexual, had an incest child Anger and financial worries Heavy rain on the boat, got ill from rain and died at 36 Wrote poetry with the famous Childe Harold’s PilgrimageWrote in iambic tetrameter
Byronic hero is named after him, which is a sample character of romantic fiction
what was byron’s contribution to romanticism
Byronic hero embodies
she walks in beauty
most famous byron work
his beautiful cousin
what was this about
1795- 1821Considered to be a master of lyrical poetry Born outside upper class society son of a London stable keeper Trained to be a doctor but abandoned his medical careerConsciousness is profoundly normativeDied at the age of twenty fiveFather figure from a very early ageUsed poetry as an escape Poor childhood and his early poemsShowed no promising future
ode to a grecian urn
most famous work
two lovers talkign through a pot
what was this about?
Keats showed a great introduction to lyric poetry in a time period where there wasn’t much out there to look off of.He truly paved the way for writers in this time period, and gave the, the confidence to try something new.
what was keats contribution to romanticism
mortality and transcience
What is a general theme Keats expressed in his novel?
Keats produced the first set of romantic poetry and truly paved the way for romanticists at this time. He showed a new form, and new ideas and the fact that nature did play a key role in society.
How did Keats contribute to the romanticism period?
He incorporated the ancient world into his poetry because he wanted to show that poetry and art would be passed down over time.
As we can see, this is exactly how poetry is these days
Why did Keats incorporate the “the ancient world” into his poetry?
This title is referring to the way his ‘imaginative versification’ is in his poems. He links reality and fantasy together, and pretends that they are one world. It was given to him because it is a reoccurring theme in his poems, and he wants his readers to share this experience, of his imagination and creativity, with him.
Coleridge is often referred to as a “poet of the imagination,” what do you think this title means and why do you think it was given to him?
There is still a lot of meaning in this poem, without background knowledge of his opium dream. The nature is a reoccurring theme that could be found significant, also the poem could find meaning about living, with the fountain’s eruption of water and rocks representing the inception of life or violent birth. Another example of meaning in the poem is his sexual desire.
Do you think it impossible to find any significance in “Kubla Khan” without knowledge of Coleridge’s opium dream
Yes, Coleridge had an unhappy marriage, was addicted to opium, had loved ones die, and was suffering from unrequited love. All these events characterized Coleridge’s poems, where he no longer wrote about joy but he but a lot of his philosophical theories in his poems.
Do you think Coleridge’s early life, switching schools so many times, the death of his father, etc., affected the way he wrote his poems?
The unique way, in which he described the setting, with sounds, helped paint a picture of what each poem was about.
What is the unique way which Coleridge described nature, which helped paint a picture of what the scene was like?
he wanted to explain more complex emotions
Why did Byron write in iambic tetrameter?
He wrote the poem after he saw his cousin, Mrs. John Wilmot, for the first time and thought she was beautifulThis poem associates beauty with darkness instead of light
Who was “She Walks in Beauty” written about and why?
ideals of passionate, romantic love, mystery, a melancholy temperament, and nationalist fervor.