Romanticism test- British literature

romanticism
a movement that flourished in literature, philosophy, music, and art in Western Culture during most of the nineteenth century, beginning as a revolt against neoclassicism

imagery
words or phrases that create pictures, or images, in the reader’s mind

1.) the revolt by the English colonies in America against the economic and political control of the mother country
2.) the french revolution (inspired at first then caused disillusionment)
two historical events that inspired the romantic ports

Byronic hero
an original version of the boyish and youthful Don Juan, a fresh, energetic, impressionable young man whose curiosity and attractiveness to women enable Byron to expose both the foolishness and the cruelty of life and the wonderful richness of earthly experience; modeled after byron’s own life

Terza Rima
an Italian verse form consisting of a series of 3-line stanzas in which the middle line of each stanza rhymes with the first and third lines of the following stanza, as follows: abs bcd cdc, etc.; interlocking rhyme scheme

ode to the west wind
Shelley structures the poem to parallel the movement of the wind

Lyrical Ballads
Romantic Age begins with the publication of the _______

the reign of terror during which thousands were guillotined
What was the french revolution followed by?

Industrial revolution
marks the shift from hand labor to new methods of manufacturing by machines; marks the beginning of a modern era-intolderable working conditions for all, low wages, unlimited hours, and unsafe conditions; england stays divided into 2 classes: wealthy and poor

James Watt, 1765
perfected the steam engine, which sparks the industrial revolution in England

First Reform Bill, 1832
marks the end of the romanticism in england; extends the vote to more (not all) citizens; curtails some privileges of the aristocracy; redistributes parliamentary representation

The Lyrical Ballads
collaborated on and produced by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge; redefine poetry in The Preface

Wordsworth’s definition of poetry
“All good poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling recollected in tranquility”

Coleridge’s definition of poetry
“Poetic faith constitutes the willing suspension of disbelief”

George Gordon aka Lord Byron
born into an aristocratic family but left England to lead an unconventional life; developed concept of the Byronic hero; died at 36 of severe fear while training with the Greek army

Percy Bysshe Shelley*
ran off with Mary Wollstonecraft who was pregnant with his child (even though he was married); his wife later committed suicide and 2 of his…

John Keats
the most promising of the poets; died at 25 of tuberculosis; showed the promise of becoming a 2nd shakespeare but died before he could

the essay; gothic novels
Romantic prose developments

The Essay
3 great essayists of the period include Charles Lamb, William Hazlitt, and Thomas DeQuincy

Gothic novels
popular fiction characterized by settings of dark castles amid an atmosphere of gloom and terror such as Frankenstein by Mary Shelley (aka Percy Bysshe Shelley’s wife)

Jane Austin and Sir Walter Scott
great novelists

*1.) worship of nature and its effect on man’s soul
2.) belief in the power of the imagination
3.) focus on emotion
4.) concern with the individual human being
5.) focus on personal freedom and individual rights
6.) interest in rustic life and those close to nature
7.) interest in medieval subjects and settings
8.) emphasis on simplicity
characteristics of romantic poetry

american transcendentalism
the result of the influence of British writers of romanticism

sonnets and odes
favorite verse forms

it is a book of poetry that is written by two romantic poets, wordsworth and coleridge, and *redefines the meaning of poetry* in 2 separate views. It also expresses emotion, which is a characteristic of romantic poetry.
significance of Lyrical Ballads

He perfected the steam engine, which began the Industrial Revolution in England. *It greatly inspired the romantic poetry.*
significance of James Watt

*It was one of 2 historical events that inspired the romantic poets and their work.*
significance of the American Revolution

*This year marks the end of Romanticism in England. *
significance of 1832

This movement begins the shift from hand labor to new methods of manufacturing by machines. *In England, romantic poets are inspired by this but also hated it.*
significance of the Industrial Revolution

Gothic novels are a new romantic prose development/ a development that became popular.
significance of the gothic novel

Poets hate the industrial revolution because it ruins nature.
Do the poets like or hate the Industrial Revolution?

Italian/Petrarchan sonnet
a 14-line lyric poem written in rhymed iambic pentameter; consists of one octave and one sestet; the rhyme scheme goes abababab or abbaabba and cdcdcd or cdecde.

octave
8 lines

sestet
6 lines

They appeal to romantic poets because they focus on emotion about nature. (Sonnets for a desirable yet unattainable women and romantic poets for nature)
Why do sonnets appeal to romantic poets?

He is known as this because he had amazing ideas and literary work but he never finished many of them.
Why was Coleridge known as a “genius unfulfilled?”

allegory
a tale in verse or prose in which characters, actions, or settings represent abstract ideas or moral qualities

This work follows a cycle of sin, which marks all actions or symbolisms under the five steps- innocence, sin, guilt, penance, and forgiveness.
How is the “Rime of the Ancient Mariner” an allegory?

The moral of the story is to find beauty in all forms of nature and not kill even the smallest object off without a plausible reason.
What is the moral of the “Rime of the Ancient Mariner?”

The albatross comes into the poem as a sign of life when the sailors’ ship becomes stuck in the arctic but soon it becomes a symbol of the sin of the Mariner when all the crazy things happen to the ship and its crew.
How is the albatross like a symbol in the “Rime of the Ancient Mariner?”

assonance
the repetition of similar vowel sounds, especially in poetry

caesura
a break or pause in a line of poetry

alliteration
the repetition of similar sounds, usually consonants or consonant clusters, in a group of words

internal rhyme
a rhyme occurring within a line

personification
a figure of speech in which something nonhuman is given human qualities

Onomatopoeia
the use of a word whose sound in some degree imitates or suggests its meaning

simile
a comparison made between two things through the use of a specific word of comparison, such as like, as, than, or resembles

metaphor
a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two things that are basically dissimilar

ode
a complex and often lengthy lyric poem, written in a dignified formal style on some lofty or serious subject

They appeal to poets because they focus on emotion.
Why do odes as a literary form appeal to the romantic poets?

Percy Bysshe Shelley
Which poet wrote using Terza Rima?

Beauty in this poem is found in all forms of nature and nature is prized by romantic poets.
Discuss the importance of beauty in “Ode to a Grecian Urn.”

Death is reflected in the lives of the poets and the poets’ writing. It sparks fear and that fear is also reflected in the writing of the poets.
Discuss the concept of death in romantic poetry.

Poetic inspiration comes easily sometimes and other times the poets experience writer’s block. Inspiration and ideas also come to poets from happenings in their daily lives. John Keats- “Ode to a Nightingale” and “When I Have Fears That I May Cease To Be” William Wordsworth-poetry brings tranquility- “Tintern Abbey” Samuel Taylor Coleridge- inspiration from his dreams- “A Rime of the Ancient Mariner” and “Kubla Khan”
Discuss the poet’s attitude about poetic inspiration and its connection to nature in romantic poetry. name 3 examples.

the urbanization of English life and landscape and the exploitation of the working class
What were the main consequences of the Industrial Revolution?

William Wordsworth
author of “Tintern Abbey”

example of Wordsworth’s definition of poetry
“Tintern Abbey”

the speaker returns to the same place he once was after 5 years, even though he has been away he hasn’t forgotten this place and imagines it in his mind, he sees himself in his sister as she gazes at the nature of this place; all the images he describes in this place reflect deep seclusion and peace
“Tintern Abbey”

comparing the mind to “a mansion of all lovely forms” and comparing the memory to “a dwelling place”
two metaphors in “Tintern Abbey” that define the importance of memory

William Wordsworth
author of “Composed Upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802 “

As the speaker passes by the city and the countryside, he declares the buildings and scenery to be accessories to Earth’s natural beauty. (morning beauty-bar and silent; city getting dressed) The early morning calms the speaker and makes him realizes how beautiful and calm the city is during the early sunrise.
“Composed Upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802”

William Wordsworth
author of “It Is a Beauteous Evening, Calm and Free”

Speakers describes earth at the perfect time of day-evening/sunset (evening is quiet like a Nun/sacred/holy). speaker asks his niece to admire nature with him and he tells her nature always has the ability to calm one’s soul. (child intuitively appreciates nature, whereas, man has to think about appreciating nature)
“It Is a Beauteous Evening, Calm and Free”

William Wordsworth
author of “London, 1802”

the speaker calls on Milton to come back from the dead and save them from the evil seeping into the world. (give us back, we are selfish; metaphor: England compared to a fen {aka swamp} of stagnant waters). Speaker compares milton’s impact to a star, sea, naked heavens, and godliness. (dead so nothing will happen)
“London, 1802”

William Wordsworth
author of “The World Is Too Much With Us”

speaker comments on how everyone treats nature like a nuisance instead of a majesty. (too caught up in Industrial Revolution, too concerned with money) speaker asks God for an amazing occurrence to help him never doubt or dislike the Lord’s Creation again. (rather be a pagan- they focus on nature)
“The World Is Too Much With Us”

Samuel Taylor Coleridge
author of the “Rime of the Ancient Mariner”

Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Author of “Kubla Khan”

It is a poem about writing a poem. A drug dream.
“Kubla Khan”

Kubla Khan
a king of Mongol dynasty in China, he ordered men to build a pleasure dome which protects gardens and nature.

a poem
What is the symbolism of “a miracle of rare device” and “a sunny pleasure dome with caves of ice?”

a form of inspiration
What is the symbolism of “a damsel with a dulcimer?”

George Gordon aka Lord Byron
author of “Apostrophe to the Ocean”

the speaker likes nature more than people. (nature has solitude that the poets like) speaker talks to the ocean. (man has control up until the sea and the ocean’s control over everything) whenever someone hurts the ocean society disregards it but whenever the ocean hurts someone society gets mad about it. (ocean can decide what it wants to do and how to treat man) The ships and sea creatures are the toys of the ocean which melt into the water like the spanish armada. time doesn’t change anyone bause with every dawn, a new day begins. (society changes but the ocean doesn’t) The ocean acts as a mirror and reflects the sky and Heaven {reference to God}.monsters are made here but everything created by and living in the ocean obeys it. (metaphors: ocean to a mirror, the throne of the Invisible, can’t see what ocean contains). speaker expresses love for ocean. (he likes the ocean and the way it is and likes to play in it)
“Apostrophe to the Ocean”

John Keats
author of “Ode to a Nightingale”

inspiration for this comes from the death of his brother.
“Ode to a Nightingale”

speaker hears a happy bird singing in a tree, he feels miserable and depressed. (contradiction) speaker gives option #1- get so drunk he can’t feel anything. Speaker then remembers his brother but tries not to think about him so he isn’t filled with sadness. (bird doesn’t know troubles of the world) Speaker gives option #2- write poetry as an escape. speaker describes things he can’t even see. speaker gives option #3- to commit suicide. Speaker believes the bird cannot die and compares its actions to those of Ruth, a woman who left home to work in fields. (song of the bird is immortal) As the bird flies away, the music ends. Speaker can’t decide if it was real or just a dream.
“Ode to a Nightingale”

anything that can last forever- poetry, music, painting/art, death, the song of the bird, nature
What is important to John Keats?

John Keats
author of “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer”

speaker travels when he reads. speaker compares himself to Cortez/explorer discovering the Pacific Ocean/ amazing feeling. Speaker as steadfast as a star, stay and watch over nature all day and night. star watches over moving waters and newly fallen snow. Star never wanders and is forever awake and watching. to hear his lover breath makes him feel immortal or attracted to her until death.
“On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer” (translated Homer’s work into English)

John Keats
author of “When I Have Fears That I May Cease To Be”

speaker fears he won’t be able to write down all his ideas before he dies. Then fears he won’t be able to use his imagination to the fullest. Then fears he won’t be able to have time to get involved in a relationship. Then the speaker feels depressed.
“When I Have Fears That I May Cease To Be”

good focus on emotion; not part of a sonnet cycle
“When I Have Fears That I May Cease To Be”

John Keats
author of “Ode to a Grecian Urn”

Speaker questions silent pictures of tales from Greece on urn {depicts time}. (uses metaphors to describe the urn; speaker knows he is going to die and doesn’t have control of it-aims for immortal objects) speaker tells lover not to become intimate with the song or grieve it because the song will never die or fade away. Renewal and love keeps objects of nature young and happy. (uses imagination) All people die and ashes go in urn on altar surrounded by nature. Souls become free and can never die. Urn teases onlookers because it can’t give answers to questions about next life. Never changes and always there, advising people to pay attention to beauty.
“Ode to a Grecian Urn” (*couplet is “beauty is truth, truth beauty that is all/ ye know on earth, and all ye need to know” -there is beauty in truth and honesty)