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Last updated: August 16, 2019
Sachinkumar PatilZealCollege of Engineering, PuneNarhe, [email protected] JadhavZealCollege of Engineering, PuneNarhe, [email protected] KumarZealCollege of Engineering, PuneNarhe, [email protected] Prof. Yogesh P.
Murumkar Zeal College of Engineering, Pune Narhe,Pune [email protected] ABSTRACTFarming is the widest financial area andtheatres vital part in the general financial growth of a country. Business progressions in the field of farmingwill governto upsurge the capability of specificagricultural events. In this paper, we have proposed a new procedureforsmart agriculture via connecting a smart detecting schemebesidessmartirrigation schemethrough wireless communication technology.The respective scheme emphases on the size of bodily constraintssuchassoil moisture content, automated irrigation, intrusiondetection, real time data processing that plays a dynamic role inagricultural events. Grounded onthe important bodily and biochemical constraints of the soil measured, theessential amount of water issprinkled on the harvests with a smart irrigator, which is connected to a Raspberry Pi kit. The complete demonstration and control policies of a smart irrigator andsmart agricultural systemareestablished in this paper.
Keywords Raspberry Pi, Smart farming, Smart agriculture System,Smart Identifying Scheme. 1. INTRODUCTION Farming is thesupport of Indian economy.
In India, about 70%ofthe people make their living from farming. The newimprovement in informationtechnology hasmade it possible for the agriculturalists to obtain a massive quantity of site-specific information for the farms. The key actions involved are information gathering, processing,and flexible amount of application of inputs. We can decrease a lotof physical efforts in thefield of farming by meansof automation.
The main issue faced in numerous farming areas is that absence ofautomation in farmingactivities. In Indiafarming activities are conductedby physical labor, usingsuitable gears such asplough, sickle. Ouradvanced automated agriculture system educethe physicaleffort and automates thefarming events or activities by using various sensorssuch as soil moisture, humidity, temperature as well as IR sensor as well asreal time data can be processed to make suggestions for farmers which will helpin increasing the productivity.2. Methodology A. Raspberry Pi Raspberry Pi 7 is a small computer boardworking on the Linux operating system which connects to a computer monitor,keyboard, and mouse. Raspberry Pi can be applied to a electronic structure andprogramming network work, it can also served as a personal computer and ApacheWebserver, MySQL could be installed in the board.
A GPIO 10 pin can beused as either a digital input or a digital output, and both operate at 3.3V.Unlike the Arduino, the Raspberry Pi which does not have any analog inputs. Forthat you must use an external analog-to-digital converter (ADC) or connect thePi to an interface board must be used. 2B.
Arduino Arduino is an open-source microcontrollercompatible with developed platforms. The controller appears not to be expensiveand uses low electrical power, 5.5 volts. C and C++ were employed for thisdevelopment. Arduino can connect to a computer via the Universal Serial Bus(USB) and perform with compatible connected accessories in both analog signaland digital signal. TheArduino is a microcontroller platform, mounted on a board that plugs easilyinto most computers. It allows the user to program the onboard Atmega chip todo various things with programming language, in programs called sketches.
2 C. Humidity Sensor module Environmental conditions directly affectanimal livelihood contributing to some chronic epidemics such as Bird Flu andHand Foot and Mouth Disease. Therefore, DHT22 is use as a censor for measuringtemperature (for both Fahrenheit and Celsius value) and humidity. The measurement unit will be demonstratedin a digital signal form. Pythonprogramming is applied for the development of Raspberry Pi. Python would readthe Arduino signal value via UART and then collect the obtained signal to thedatabase for processing.
If the value surpassed threshold, the over signalwould be sent to GPIO pins to aware the analog signal. In case of high qualitydata, a “High” signal would be sent to GPIO pin 17 and the ventilator woulderase the internal air (Fan out on). In case of high temperature, a “High”signal would be sent to GPIO pin 27 and the ventilator would work automatically(Fan in on). In the event of luminescence change, the data would be sent toGPIO pin 22 and electric lamps would be opened.
Conveniently, working ofaccessories could be customized by the user as mentioned in Fig. 4 expressing theflowchart of the Python programming in Raspberry Pi. Another important thingis that this Smart Phone works with the Android OS. Developed applications areon the Android operating system using the Java language and interacted with theRaspberry Pi through the wireless network. This will take the value from theArduino to read displays such as temperature, humidity, light, toxic gases,etc.
It’s able to control fans and lights, and can be tracked via the internetat any time. 2Hardware connection TheRaspberry Pi and Arduino were connected via UART. The connection was a serialcommunication as Full Duplex since there was two-ways that data could betransmitted via pin TX and RX. Adirect connection between the Raspberry Pi and Arduino was prohibited, becauseof its electrical potential differences, which is 3.3 volts for the RaspberryPi and 5 volts for the Arduino. Bi-directional Logic Level Converter should beused to separate them.
22. System OverviewThesystem can notify using a real-time alarming system to smart phones reportingsuch as the current and daily highest/lowest temperature, humidity, and weatherquality of the farm surroundings. Users can also control the filter fanswitches and customize the notification system to the smart phone. 2 3. System Design In this work, cheap soil moisture sensors,temperature and humidity sensors, are used. They uninterruptedly track andmonitor the farm and send it to the cloud server for real time data processing.The sensor information is stored in database.
The web application is developedin a particular way to analyse the information received and get the thresholdvalues of temperature, humidity and moisture. The server does the decisionmaking to automate the irrigation. The motor is automatically switched ON ifthe soil moisture sensor’s value is less than the threshold value and the motorwill be switched OFF if the value tops the threshold. Likewise, his technique canbe used in green houses where in addition light intensity control can also becontrolled and automated.
Thesystem is developed and tested and various conditions. The soil moisture istested in all climatic conditions and results are interpreted successfully. TheLDR is tested in all light conditions. Different readings were taken underdifferent condition. The temperature reading was taken at different weatherconditions.
The wireless transmission was achieved using Zigbee 1In sensor data collection and irrigation control was put forward on vegetable cropusing smartphone and wireless sensor networks for smart farming. The environmental datacanbe collected andtheirrigation system can becontrolled using smartphone.1A novel cloud-computing-based smart farming system was proposed for early detection ofborer insects in tomatoes. This problem is solved using Cloud computing and IOT. In a real-time monitoringofGPS-tracking was suggested for multifunctional vehicle path control and data acquisition based onZig-Bee multi-hopmesh network.
It summarizes portion that isrelated to path planning for a multifunctional vehicle. The vehicle-tracking system uses the global positioning system (GPS) and Zig- Bee wireless network based on to makethesystem communicate.Thearchitecture of the system is shown in below figure Fig. 1. Raspberry Pi architecture A. Sensors Data acquisition The sensors which are tobe used are previously deliberated. Let’s know about information acquisitionfrom sensors. The sensor is interfaced with Raspberry Pi microcontroller andprogrammed.
After it is programmed we have to place it inside a box and itshould be kept in the field. The two probes of soil moisture sensor areinserted in the soil. The current is passed by the probes in the soil.
Whenthere is less resistance the sensor passes more current and when there is moreresistance, it passes less current. The exact moisture of the soil is detectedby resistance value. Fig. 2.
Shows soil moisture sensor. 1 Light sensor (LDR)Lightintensity of the environment is detected by light sensor. Light is the mainsource for crops which is accountable for photosynthesis. The voltage dividercircuit is designed to measure resistance due to light intensity variations.Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is used in which the resistivity decreases withincrease in light intensity and vice versa. The voltage level increases withincrease in light intensity. The analog reading is taken from the board.
It canbe used in green houses where artificial lighting is done using any of theincandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps instead of sunlight.1 PIR (Passive infrared sensor)PIR stands for Passive InfraRed. This motion sensor is madeup of fresnel lens, an infrared detector, and supporting detection circuitry.The lens on the sensor emphases any infrared radiation existing around it tothe infrared detector. Living forms produce infrared heat, and as a result,this heat is detected by the motion sensor.
The sensor produces a 5V signal fora period of one minute as soon as it senses the occurrence of a person. Itoffers a tentative range of detection of about 6-7 meters and is highlysensitive. When the PIR motion sensor senses a person, it produces a 5Vsignal to the Raspberry Pi through its GPIO and we define what the Raspberry Pi shoulddo as it senses an intruder through the python coding. B. Transmission of Data (Wireless)The data acquired from sensors are transmitted to theweb server using wireless transmission.
NRF24L01 module is used for wirelesstransmission between the field and the web server. NRF24l01 uses 2.4GHztransceiver from Nordic semiconductor.
The data rate of this module is256Kbps/1 Mbps/2Mbps.The voltage required is 1.9-3.6V. NRF24L01 is cheaper thanother wireless transmission modules like Zigbee (IEEE 802.14).
The transmitterand receiver modules are connected with arduino boards. The transmitter isplace in the field and the receiver is placed in the system end.The transmitterand receiver is given a id while configuring it. All the transmitters in the fieldshould know the receiver’s id which is the destination address. The receiverwill receive data from various transmitters kept in the field. The receiver atthe system end is connected to the web server via Ethernet. The Ethernet is a IEEE802.
11 standard in computer networks technology for Local Area networks. TheEthernet is used here because of its low cost while interfacing with arduinomicro-controller and fast connection establishment. When the data from thetransmitter receives the receiver, it sends request to the web server. TheEthernet cable is connected to the arduino micro-controller using Ethernetshield for arduino. The arduino Ethernet will be assigned an IP Address whichshould be in the range our network. The arduino is given with the address ofthe web server to send request. The web server designed using PHP script to insert values in the appropriate table.The web server processes the request and stores the received data in its database.
1 C. DataProcessing and Decision making The data received from the field arewirelessly transmitted using NRF24L01 and then saved in web server mysqldatabase using Ethernet connection at receiver end. Periodically the data arereceived and stored in database.
The data processing is the task of checking the various sensors data receivedfrom the field with the already fixed threshold values. The threshold values vary according tothe crops planted. This is because different crops need different amounts ofwater. For example, in a paddy field to produce 1 kg of rice 5000 liters ofwater and for wheat it is liters. Similarly, the temperature and humidity varyfor different crops. The sensor values also vary according to the climaticconditions. The soil moisture will be different in summer and winter seasons.The temperature and humidity also vary in summer, winter and rainy season.
Thethreshold values is fixed after considering all these environmental andclimatic conditions. Themotor will be switched on automatically if the soil moisture value falls belowthe threshold and vice versa. The farmer can even switch on the motor frommobile using mobile application. Automation of Irrigation SystemTheirrigation system is automated once the control received from the webapplication or mobile application. The relays are used to pass control from web application to theelectrical switches using Arduino micro-controller. A relay is an electricallyoperated switch. The circuits with low power signal can be controlled usingrelay. There different types of relays which includes reed relay, solid staterelays, protective relay etc.
The relay used here is Solid State Relay (SSR).Ifn external voltage is applied across the ends the relay switches on or off the circuit.The ultrasonic sensor is used to monitor water levelin tanks. The ultrasonic sensors are used to measure distance of the distantobject. The depth of the water level in the tank is calculated to check whetherthe water is sufficient or not. Theultrasonic sensor work based on the piezoelectric method.
It has trigger pinand echo pin. The trigger pin act as transmitter and the echo pin is areflector. The trigger pin sends ultrasonic waves once it started functioning.The ultrasonic waves hit the water and reflected towards the echo pin. Theduration (in seconds) to receive the echo is calculated. 13.
CONCLUSIONS TheIOT is innovative for modern day farming, which changes a traditional farm to an”Advanced Automated Agriculture”. Also the system could work onapplications of smart phones serving the farmers to regulate and monitor realtime environmental contexts like various weather condition and soil conditionsas well. The intelligent system can decrease labor cost, time, other costs andit is very helpful for farmers.In the comingfuture, Raspberry Pi Model B should be changed into Raspberry Pi 2 because ofits more effectiveness andserver working reduction. All collected farming information should be sent fromthe server and stored in a new system. Moreover, a livestock feeding systemshould be also developed to make this a more complete system.
4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study was supported by the Faculty ofInformation Technology, Zeal college of Engineering, Pune. 5. REFERENCES1 Rajlakshmi P. Mrs.
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