Sarah “Gender and Time for Sleep among U.S.

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Last updated: August 23, 2019

Sarah Burgard andJennifer Ailshire published their article “Gender and Time for Sleep among U.S.Adults” in February of 2013.  Thisarticle compares evidence from self –reports from biomedical studies that womensleep for more extended hours as opposed to men because women have a workschedule which allows them to sleep longer. (Burgard & Ailshire, 2013) II.    Purpose of the ResearchThe purpose of thisstudy is to look into the gender differences in time for sleep between men andwomen.

It will also look at the relationship between the sleeping time, and thetime spent in both compensated and uncompensated jobs. (Burgard etal., 2013) III.    TheoriesFor instance, thegendered tradeoffs within the family formations (Abraham et al. 2008) are somereasons behind the differences in sleeping time between men and women. Womenhave a higher tendency to minimize their paid jobs the moment familyresponsibilities and unpaid occupations arise.

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On the contrary, men tend toincrease the amount of time spent on compensated jobs once they become parents.In such a case, the man is likely to sleep less and work more, to cater for theadditional family size. However, most of the women are increasingly changingthe regular pattern.

Some of them tend to prolong the working time for the paidoccupations, thus reducing the time they spend in sleeping. The scenario istypical among the single mothers, who do not have anybody else to rely on. Theyhave to work longer to sustain their families. In such cases, there is nodifference between men and women concerning time for sleeping. (Burgard etal.

2013) Secondly,as people progress in age, they shift from youth stage to partnership and then parenthood(Basner et al. 2007). The implication is that the responsibilities and spendingincrease, prompting both men and women to work harder and for more extendedhours. The family expectations based on gender may reduce the time for sleep.For instance, most societies expect men to be the providers. For this reason,nature will dictate that the men have to work longer hours and reduce theirtime for sleeping. However, the women in the care-giving category may end upsleeping for fewer hours as well.

The possible decline in the sleeping time isdue to the potential interruptions to provide care to the other people. She mayneed to wake up and attend to the kids. In this case, the sleeping time willreduce even if the woman is doing an unpaid job.

Therefore, the roles in thefamily may restrict the time partners have for sleeping and also recreationalactivities. IV.    Research MethodThe study used the American Time Use Survey. Thesubjects aged between eighteen years and sixty-four years.

The sample sizecomprised of fifty-six thousand, one hundred and forty- nine respondents. Thesample consisted of both men and women, hence no gender biases. (Burgard et al.

2013)The study was an interview. After the rotation ofthe current population survey, then the interview for the respondents wouldtake place. The duration of the interview would be between two and five monthsfollowing the rotation of the population survey. The outcome of the interviewwas the source of the data for this study. The respondents first received thenotification regarding the study through the emails. The emails would compriseof the nature of questions, and then the interview would happen through thephone. (Burgard et al.

2013)The study did not have any ethical issues. Therespondents did it out of free will, and they had all the necessary protectionfrom harm. They also had a guaranteed right to the privacy of the informationthey provided during the interview.

The sleep measures were dominant. Among thedependent variables included the minutes of sleeping time. The measurement forthe variable depended on either sleeping or sleeplessness. Another test forthis variable is the bedtimes, comparing early and late bedtimes. Moreover, theuse of time in paid activities was a measure because it directly affected thetime for sleeping. Some of the independent variables included the time spent inactivities such as exercise and leisure. Other variables included the timespent in waiting for lines for security operations and the waiting time in anyservice industry. The measurement of these variables comprised of the totaltime taken to perform the activities.

(Burgard et al. 2013)V.    ResultsOverall,women sleep more and for a longer time as opposed to men (Burgard, 2011).However, women appeared to engage in more unpaid occupations as opposed to men.The activities include child nursing and caregiving. During these operations,the women have to wake up from sleep to perform the actions. The wakingrequirement amounts to sleep interruptions, which end up lowering the timespent on sleeping.

In addition to that, the family roles for the men and thewomen directly affect the length of sleeping time. If the man is the providerfor the family, then he has to increase the working time and reduce thesleeping time. The same case happens to the women who are single parents. Apartfrom the caregiving responsibilities, they have to increase the working time tocater to the needs of their families. Partnershipand family setups directly affect the sleeping time. Men, in most cases, happento work more when they engage in partnership as opposed to the time when theywere single.

It is from the collaboration that parenthood arises, and the rolesand financial commitments increase with time. Their increase calls for lesssleeping time and more time for paid jobs. In addition to that, the surveyconfirmed that the quality of sleep decreases with the increase in the possibleinterruptions.

Once interrupted from sleep by anything, the affected person maynot perform well at the place of work. The findings support the hypotheses forthe study.  VI.    SummaryIt is clearthat women sleep more as compared to men.

However, they tend to experienceinterruptions due to their duty of care towards the other members of thefamily. Nevertheless, the study had some limitations. For instance, theattitude towards sleep based on gender may lead to men believing that they alwayssleep for less time and work for more time. Some bias is possible in thereporting of time diary. The respondent provides the information depending onfree will, and sometimes the data may be wrong. In addition to that, the surveyanalyzed a single day. It does not have room for possible changes in thesleeping cycle for the same respondents. It is possible to change the sleepingduration depending on the circumstances at hand, and the survey does not haveroom for such adjustments.

There is the need to consider the people aged abovesixty-four years, who may have a significant pattern of sleep depending ontheir occupations. This study was an applied research since it analyzed theoutcomes of the respondents based on their activities and time for rest. (Burgardet al. 2013)

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