Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Loren Fox
Last updated: December 30, 2019
scaffolds in vivo that arebeing seeded on their own by the patient’s blood cells. The authors concludethat tissue engineered heart valves is the most promising approach in replacingthe human native ones, as they are more sustainable with less unwanted effectson the human organism than the other artificial heart valves.From a differentperspective, Hasan et al.
(2014) present the concepts that explain the sciencebehind the mechanical properties of both human and animal heart valves. Theyalso show that there is a great need for tissue engineered heart valves due tothe disease that affects the native ones and for that reason it is crucial todesign and manufacture such artificial valves that have many similarities tothe function and mechanics of the native aortic and pulmonary roots. In theirarticle it is clearly stated that human heart valves are known for theirviscoelasticity, long fatigue and flexure behaviour, so these are theproperties that tissue engineered heart valves need to obtain in order to facethis serious problem. They conclude that despite the small availability ofnative human heart valves a further investigation should be performed on themechanical properties of the tissue engineered ones and they suggest that byutilizing tools like computational modelling we can solve the issue of lackingbig amounts of human heart valves.Vafaee et al. (2017) seekto investigate how the decellularisation process affect the properties of aheart valve that is obtained by a donor. They compared cryopreserved heartvalves with decellularised ones, which have not been cryopreserved, byhistological, collagen, glycosaminoglycan quantification and some othertechniques. The decellularisation process was performed by sodium dodecylsulfate in low concentration and the conclusions depict that this method cancreate biocompatible tissue engineered heart valves with no DNA on theirextracellular matrix but with the desired biomechanics on their bulk.
Finally,they suggest that further research should be applied to the application onyounger patients.In addition, Desai et al. (2018) investigate howthe decellularisation process that Vafaee et al. (2017) introduced, affects thein vitro biomechanics and hydrodynamics of human aortic and pulmonary roots whichwere cryopreserved. They compared decellularised cryopreserved biologicalaortic and pulmonary roots, which have their cells being removed from theirextracellular matrix using this procedure, with cellular native ones.
Based onthe outcomes of their experiments, they concluded that the biomechanics andhydrodynamics of both decellularised aortic and pulmonary roots are showingsimilarities to the cellular ones and can potentially be used clinically toreplace human heart valves.