Herbivorous ungulates act as a driving forcefor diversifying vegetation and maintaining feedback in plant communities (Augustineand McNaughton, 1998). The cycling of elements in a community betweenproducers, consumers and decomposers is critical in maintaining stability in anecosystem. Plant-herbivore relations affect nutrient cycling as palatability,growth rates and decomposition rates are related. Nutrient cycling isaccelerated through ungulates depositing faecal matter in a highly decomposableform available for uptake by microbes and plants (Hobbs, 1996).
The cold volcanic glass. The spewing bacteria. The thick black smokers. Deep-sea volcanoes can be very cool but also very dangerous to people like you and I. Obsidian Volcanic glass is called, obsidian. Obsidian is caused when lava or magma cools rapidly when it encounters deep, cold ocean water. Obsidian is low in the ocean water, and ancient glasses are very rare to find. There are only a few ancient
Chapter Two : The Sun By : C. Page, K. Contresas A. Lopez, H Mikel Many Scientists think the sun and therest of the solar system formed from a giant, rotating cloud of gas and dustknown as the solar nebula and believe the sun to be approximately 4. 6 billionyears old. As the solar nebula collapsed because of its gravity, it spun fasterand flattened
Healthysoil is very vital to plants. In addition to essential nutrients found in soil,soil provides an anchor for plant roots and helps support the plants. Fertilizer also provides plants with nutrients and is usuallygiven to plants when watering. The most important key nutrients for plantsgrowing needs are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. These elements help theplant to grow and then with the help of electricity it can grow faster.Also, plants require
Unlike all other major grain crops, maize (Zea mays L.) is a monoecious species, with a separate male flower (tassel) located at the top of the stem and female flowers (ears) located about midway down on the same plant. This spatial arrangement of the flowers facilitates both selfing (pollination of the female flower with pollen from the same plant) and crossing (pollination of the female flower with pollen from a
According toEncyclopedia Britannica, the Volvoxgenus contains about 20 different species (2015). These autotrophic green algaelive in fresh water where they form “spherical or oval hollow colonies” (2015).These colonies can range from 500 to 60,000 cells joined together via cytoplasmicfilaments (2015). Their somatic cells each have two flagella and one chloroplast(2015). These microorganisms engage in “phototaxis” by grouping the colony memberswith larger “light reception” areas together to form an area specifically
Biological:High levels of turbidity in river waters would cause less light to be able topenetrate into the lower depths of the river floor, thus inhibiting the processof photosynthesis in aquatic plants living underwater. The lack of primaryproducers would thus affect aquatic life that is dependent on the aquatic plantsfor food.
Looking at the results, method 2 seemed to be a better method for measuring photosynthesis, since the average rate in method 2 is higher than the ones being measured in method 1. However, we have to bear in mind that two different types of plants have been used. In method 1 a dry or in other words a land plant was used and in method 2 a water plant was
HypothesisMy aim is to investigate the factors effecting the distribution of living organisms in freshwater ponds. I think the abiotic factors, which will effect this, will be:* Temperature* pH levels (% of hydrogen ions)* Light intensity* Conductivity* Chemicals from acid rain* Fertiliser (pollutants)* Oxygen levels* Carbon dioxide levels* Space and shelterI think the biotic factors, which will effect the distribution of living organisms, will be:* Influence of people* Predators* Prey*
My aim is to extract the various photosynthetic pigments from a grass tissue and later to separate them and determine which one is which by using thin layer chromatography.To calculate Rf values for all of the pigments.Hypothesis:I expect to observe various pigments extracted. There will be a distinction between them and separation will occur due to the pigments’ different solubility and attraction to the static phase.Prediction:I predict that separation of