Sensory what we perceive after a stimulus. For

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Last updated: September 11, 2019

Sensory Modalities                       A sensory modality is a way ofsensing, like vision or hearing. Modality insomeone’s voice gives a sense of the person’s mood. In logic, modality has to do with whether aproposition is necessary, possible, or impossible.

In general, Amodality is a particular way inwhich something exists.Stimulus modality, also called sensory modality, is one aspect of astimulus or what we perceive after a stimulus. For example, thetemperature modality isregistered after heat or cold stimulate a receptor. Some sensory modalities include:light, sound, temperature, taste, pressure, and smell.•        General Senses:1.  Somatic (Exteroceptors) a.

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  Touch b. Pressure c. Temperature d. Proprioception e.  Pain2.  Visceral (Interoceptors)                                    a.  Pain       b.

 Pressure•        Special Sensesa.  Smell orOlfaction b.  Taste or Gustation c.  Sight or Vision          d.  Sound or Auditory   e. Balance or Equilibrium Stimulation of a sensory receptor Transduction of the stimulus                   Conversion of the stimulusinto a graded potential Generation of an impulse                   Conversion of a gradedpotential into an action potential at a trigger zone and propagation to CNS.Integrationof sensory inputAUDITORY                   Auditory learners learn bestthrough hearing, using their ears and their voices as the primary way to learn.

They learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things throughand listening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret theunderlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice and othernuances. Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. Theselearners often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder. VISUAL               Visual learners need to see thematerial to learn most effectively.

They need to see the teacher’s bodylanguage and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson.They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays includingdiagrams and hand-outs. During a lecture or classroom discussion, visuallearners often prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information.

KINESTHETIC                       Kinesthetic learners are those who learnbest by doing. Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands-on approach andactively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sitstill for long periods and may become distracted by their need for activity andexploration.Chemoreceptions                                  A sensorynerve cell or sense organ, as of smell, or taste, that are able to detect andrespond to chemical stimuli.              OR A sensory receptor that detects chemical stimuli in theenvironment and relay that information to the central nervoussystem.

 Explaination                   A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensoryreceptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance(endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal. This signal may bein the form of an action potential if the chemoreceptor is a neuron (nervecells or in form of neurotransmitter that activate nearby a nerve fibers ifchemosensor is a specialized sensory receptor cell, such as taste receptor in taste bud or ininternal peripheralchemoreceptor such as carotid body. In more generalterms, a chemosensor detects toxic or hazardous chemicals in the internal orexternal environment of the human body and transmits that information tothe centralnervous system, and rarelythe peripheralnervous system, in order toexpel the biologically active toxins from the blood, and prevent furtherconsumption of alcohol and/or other acutely toxic recreational intoxicants.ExamplesExamples of distance chemoreceptorsExample 1                 Olfactory receptor neurons inthe olfactory system.Olfaction involves the ability to detect chemicals in thegaseous state.

In vertebrates, the olfactory system detects odors andpheromones in the nasal cavity.Within the olfactory system there are twoanatomically distinct organs: the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ. It was initially thought thatthe MOE is responsible for the detection of odorants, while the VNO detects pheromones. The current view, however, isthat both systems can detect odorants and pheromones. Olfaction ininvertebrates differs from olfaction in vertebrates.

For example, in insects,olfactory sensilla are present on their antennae.Example 2       Those buds which are used in taste are present in the gustatory system.Theprimary use of gustation as a type of chemoreception is for the detection oftaste ants. Aqueous chemical compounds come into contact with chemoreceptors inthe mouth, such as taste buds on the tongue, and trigger responses. Thesechemical compounds can either trigger an appetitive response for nutrients, ora defensive response against toxins depending on which receptors fire. Fish andcrustaceans, who are constantly in an aqueous environment, use their gustatorysystem to identify certain chemicals in the mixture for the purpose oflocalization and ingestion of food.Example 3Insects use contact chemoreception to recognizecertain chemicals such as cuticular hydrocarbons and chemicals specific to hostplants. Contact chemoreception is more commonly seen in insects but is alsoinvolved in the mating behavior of some vertebrates.

The contact chemoreceptoris specific to one type of chemical. 

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