shinto

Shinto
local, indigenous religion in japan
topography is important
isolated from Asian mainland
more mountains than flatland
difficult for travel, communication, interaction
isolation and influence
mountainous inland areas, development in coastal area and southwestern plains
slower development, difficulty in unification, development of agriculture, etc.
contact w korea and china via the tsushima straights
china and india are cradles of first civilizations, japan develops a lot later
indigenous religion of Japan
no founder, no canon of sacred literature, no explicit ethical requirements
does manifest itself as more of a part of culture rather than a distinct religion
can practice shinto but also be buddhist
originated in clans- each had their own kami
kami – central to shinto
no name for this religion until Buddhism arrived
buddhism influenced daoism and shinto
“Shinto” – the way of the divine being (kami)
major books (Kohiji and Nihongi) written later and influenced by Buddhist and Chinese thought
became associated w Japanese nationalism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

kami
over time, an elaborate Shinto mythology has emerged
From an original sacred reality, heavenly kami (Amatsu Kami) were born.
Two of these, Izanagi and Izanami, stood on the “Floating Bridge of Heaven” and stirred the ocean with a spear. From the drops from the spear, the islands of Japan were created.
sense of uniqueness and being connected from the divine from this creation story, divine presence exists in japan
Izanagi and Izanami give birth to
Amaterasu – the Sun Goddess
gives birth to the first emperor of Japan
Jimmu
important that the first emperor of Japan is the son of the Sun Goddess, reaffirms the whole right of the divine to rule, like the mandate of heaven, the emperor is divine, his divine right
Kami can appear in nature, land forms that are divine and even animals
Mt. Fuji- has sacredness to it, spirits reside in the mountain
The Emperor and the Japanese people descended from the kami, in fact all of nature and all living beings joined in kinship as a creations of the kami
Kami
kami can be singular or plural, lit “that which is from above”
that which evokes wonder and awe, “the sacred”
often reside in nature and connected to natural phenomena
can be forces for good and for bad
also can be abstract principles and living beings (like the emperor)

Izanagi & Izanami
From an original sacred reality, heavenly kami (Amatsu Kami) were born.
Two of these, Izanagi and Izanami, stood on the “Floating Bridge of Heaven” and stirred the ocean with a spear. From the drops from the spear, the islands of Japan were created.
sense of uniqueness and being connected from the divine from this creation story, divine presence exists in japan
Izanagi and Izanami give birth to
Amaterasu – the Sun Goddess
gives birth to the first emperor of Japan
Jimmu
important that the first emperor of Japan is the son of the Sun Goddess, reaffirms the whole right of the divine to rule, like the mandate of heaven, the emperor is divine, his divine right

Amaterasu
Amaterasu – the Sun Goddess
gives birth to the first emperor of Japan
Jimmu
important that the first emperor of Japan is the son of the Sun Goddess, reaffirms the whole right of the divine to rule, like the mandate of heaven, the emperor is divine, his divine right

Kojiki & Nihongi
The Kojiki “chronicle of ancient events” (712 CE)
The Nihonji “chronicle of japan” (720 CE)
norito : shinto prayers

Mt. Fuji
Kami can appear in nature, land forms that are divine and even animals
Mt. Fuji- has sacredness to it, spirits reside in the mountain

Kannagara
“the way or nature of the Kami”
forces in the universe we can’t see and we need to be aware of them

tsumi
tsumi “impurity” of misfortune, In Shinto, the problem is the notion of impurity (tsumi)
The mind can make you impure which is sometimes controlled by emotions. Emotions can make you impure. i.e. Death can make us impure…emotionally impacts you

misogi
purification ritual, which involves standing under a waterfall
go to a waterfall, stand under it and let the water wash off your impurities
use waterfall bc of connection to kami

oharai
ceremony performed by shinto priests

Shinto shrines
Honden- main hall
not open to public
where the Kami are present
Haiden- hall of worship
Chozuya- purification fountain
Torii- entrance gate
some honor kami of their area or very significant kami
not random places…v specific

torri
entrance gate to shrine

chozuya
purification fountain

Ise Grand Shrine
oldest and most important shinto shrine
dates back to 4 BCE
emerged as official imperial shrine just before the Heian Period
visited by millions of visitors each year
located in a Cyprus forest
there bc people believe that’s where the kami lived in this Cyprus forest

shimenawa
ropes which indicate sacred space and ward off evil

shimei or gohei

What is the role of tsumi in Shinto worldview? What is the role purification in Shinto?
tsumi “impurity” of misfortune, In Shinto, the problem is the notion of impurity (tsumi)
The mind can make you impure which is sometimes controlled by emotions. Emotions can make you impure. i.e. Death can make us impure…emotionally impacts you

How did Shinto develop over time?
Shinto and Buddhism
Buddhism arrives in Japan in 6th Century CE
Shinto and Buddhism accommodated one another
Both kami and Buddhist ideals were incorporated in spiritual lives
Kami, “transformations of the Buddha manifested in Japan to save all sentient beings.”
a lot of blending of shinto and buddhist tradition for a very long time
this changes in the 19th century
The Meiji Restoration
1868-1912
Reformers w military backgrounds toppled the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868
Emperor Mutsuhito, the Meiji Emperor (“Enlightened Rule”) became the symbol of new Japan and began the process of bringing Japan into the modern world.
development of infrastructure, ships, ports, railroads
invest in heavy stone and brick western style architecture and bring people in from diff parts of the world to teach Japanese how to make and build these things
The Meiji Constitution
based on the german model
formally established Japan as a constitutional monarchy, in which the reigning emperor was “sacred and inviolable” has ultimate authority
established an elective “diet,” or parliament
The change in Japan made them more European but they were also proud of their own identity
State Shinto
established in 1882 as the state religion
shinto was forced to separate from buddhism
no longer acceptable for Shinto shrines to have Buddhist imagery or ritual
emphasized the divine origins of the emperor
linked to the cause of Japanese nationalism
Amaterasu was prompted to be the most important of the gods and used to validate the role of the Emperor
Emperor = divine right to rule Japan and world
Since the Japanese descended from the gods, they were superior to all other races
singling themselves out into being excluded, but builds up great nationalism in being Japanese
uniqueness
entitlement of superiority
chosen by the gods
above all others
make them feel more united around a shared belief
World War II
veneration of the emperor
schoolchildren were indoctrinated w Japanese nationalism
The code of bushido was twisted so that dying for the emperor became a source of pride and fighting in his name brought him glory
The War Ends
firebombing of major cities
Hiroshima
Nagasaki
Japanese surrender to Allied Powers
this is the first time they experienced tough defeat
American Occupation (1945-1952)
General Douglas MacArthur & Supreme Commander Allied Powers (SCAP)
War Tribunals
Reconstruction and Reform
The End of State Shinto
3 documents dismantled State Shinto
The Directive for the Disestablishment of State Shinto (45)
The Imperial Rescript Renouncing Divinity (46)
rewriting of imperial policy
basically saying they’re not divine at all and not superior
The Constitution of 1947
emperor- figurehead, symbol of the state
Parliament and Prime Minister elected by universal suffrage
Bill of Rights
Article 9
Japan can’t wage war and they basically don’t have a military, only used when they’re under attack
Article 20
freedom of religion is guaranteed
religion doesn’t ge state backing
no person has to participate in religion
state won’t direct religious education or activities

makoto
human character must have this, “sincerity” pure wo egotism, committed

haiden
hall of worship

honden
main hall
not open to public
where the Kami are present

ema
plaques that you go and purchase and you can write a prayer or wish on the ema and hang it around a tree, shinto priest will collect them and bless them

matsuri
each shrine has its special festival days which are these, celebrated w grand processions and entertainment

omikoshi
during matsuri, parade kami in a hand-carried litter which is this

7-5-3
people visit shrines for blessings during important times in their lives, 3 and 7 for girls and 5 for boys

Mutsuhito
assumed real, rather than symbolic power in japan, he was emperor meiji, brought japan into modern world, imported europe and emrican experts to build govt military and educational systems, TURNING POINT
Emperor Mutsuhito, the Meiji Emperor (“Enlightened Rule”) became the symbol of new Japan and began the process of bringing Japan into the modern world.
development of infrastructure, ships, ports, railroads
invest in heavy stone and brick western style architecture and bring people in from diff parts of the world to teach Japanese how to make and build these things

Meiji Restoration
assumed real, rather than symbolic power in japan, he was emperor meiji, brought japan into modern world, imported europe and emrican experts to build govt military and educational systems, TURNING POINT, shinto was forced to separate from buddhism, 1868-1912
Reformers w military backgrounds toppled the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868
Emperor Mutsuhito, the Meiji Emperor (“Enlightened Rule”) became the symbol of new Japan and began the process of bringing Japan into the modern world.
development of infrastructure, ships, ports, railroads
invest in heavy stone and brick western style architecture and bring people in from diff parts of the world to teach Japanese how to make and build these things

State Shinto
established in 1882 as the state religion
shinto was forced to separate from buddhism
no longer acceptable for Shinto shrines to have Buddhist imagery or ritual
emphasized the divine origins of the emperor
linked to the cause of Japanese nationalism
Amaterasu was prompted to be the most important of the gods and used to validate the role of the Emperor
Emperor = divine right to rule Japan and world
Since the Japanese descended from the gods, they were superior to all other races
singling themselves out into being excluded, but builds up great nationalism in being Japanese
uniqueness
entitlement of superiority
chosen by the gods
above all others
make them feel more united around a shared belief

x

Hi!
I'm Garrett!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out