shinto

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Last updated: November 29, 2019

Shinto
local, indigenous religion in japantopography is important isolated from Asian mainlandmore mountains than flatlanddifficult for travel, communication, interactionisolation and influencemountainous inland areas, development in coastal area and southwestern plainsslower development, difficulty in unification, development of agriculture, etc.contact w korea and china via the tsushima straightschina and india are cradles of first civilizations, japan develops a lot laterindigenous religion of Japanno founder, no canon of sacred literature, no explicit ethical requirementsdoes manifest itself as more of a part of culture rather than a distinct religioncan practice shinto but also be buddhistoriginated in clans- each had their own kamikami – central to shintono name for this religion until Buddhism arrivedbuddhism influenced daoism and shinto”Shinto” – the way of the divine being (kami)major books (Kohiji and Nihongi) written later and influenced by Buddhist and Chinese thoughtbecame associated w Japanese nationalism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

kami
over time, an elaborate Shinto mythology has emergedFrom an original sacred reality, heavenly kami (Amatsu Kami) were born.Two of these, Izanagi and Izanami, stood on the “Floating Bridge of Heaven” and stirred the ocean with a spear. From the drops from the spear, the islands of Japan were created.sense of uniqueness and being connected from the divine from this creation story, divine presence exists in japanIzanagi and Izanami give birth toAmaterasu – the Sun Goddessgives birth to the first emperor of JapanJimmuimportant that the first emperor of Japan is the son of the Sun Goddess, reaffirms the whole right of the divine to rule, like the mandate of heaven, the emperor is divine, his divine rightKami can appear in nature, land forms that are divine and even animalsMt. Fuji- has sacredness to it, spirits reside in the mountainThe Emperor and the Japanese people descended from the kami, in fact all of nature and all living beings joined in kinship as a creations of the kamiKami kami can be singular or plural, lit “that which is from above”that which evokes wonder and awe, “the sacred”often reside in nature and connected to natural phenomenacan be forces for good and for badalso can be abstract principles and living beings (like the emperor)

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Izanagi & Izanami
From an original sacred reality, heavenly kami (Amatsu Kami) were born.Two of these, Izanagi and Izanami, stood on the “Floating Bridge of Heaven” and stirred the ocean with a spear. From the drops from the spear, the islands of Japan were created.

sense of uniqueness and being connected from the divine from this creation story, divine presence exists in japanIzanagi and Izanami give birth toAmaterasu – the Sun Goddessgives birth to the first emperor of JapanJimmuimportant that the first emperor of Japan is the son of the Sun Goddess, reaffirms the whole right of the divine to rule, like the mandate of heaven, the emperor is divine, his divine right

Amaterasu
Amaterasu – the Sun Goddessgives birth to the first emperor of JapanJimmuimportant that the first emperor of Japan is the son of the Sun Goddess, reaffirms the whole right of the divine to rule, like the mandate of heaven, the emperor is divine, his divine right

Kojiki & Nihongi
The Kojiki “chronicle of ancient events” (712 CE)The Nihonji “chronicle of japan” (720 CE)norito : shinto prayers

Mt. Fuji
Kami can appear in nature, land forms that are divine and even animalsMt. Fuji- has sacredness to it, spirits reside in the mountain

Kannagara
“the way or nature of the Kami”forces in the universe we can’t see and we need to be aware of them

tsumi
tsumi “impurity” of misfortune, In Shinto, the problem is the notion of impurity (tsumi) The mind can make you impure which is sometimes controlled by emotions. Emotions can make you impure.

i.e. Death can make us impure.

..emotionally impacts you

misogi
purification ritual, which involves standing under a waterfallgo to a waterfall, stand under it and let the water wash off your impurities use waterfall bc of connection to kami

oharai
ceremony performed by shinto priests

Shinto shrines
Honden- main hallnot open to publicwhere the Kami are presentHaiden- hall of worshipChozuya- purification fountainTorii- entrance gatesome honor kami of their area or very significant kaminot random places…

v specific

torri
entrance gate to shrine

chozuya
purification fountain

Ise Grand Shrine
oldest and most important shinto shrinedates back to 4 BCEemerged as official imperial shrine just before the Heian Periodvisited by millions of visitors each yearlocated in a Cyprus forestthere bc people believe that’s where the kami lived in this Cyprus forest

shimenawa
ropes which indicate sacred space and ward off evil

shimei or gohei

What is the role of tsumi in Shinto worldview? What is the role purification in Shinto?
tsumi “impurity” of misfortune, In Shinto, the problem is the notion of impurity (tsumi) The mind can make you impure which is sometimes controlled by emotions. Emotions can make you impure. i.e. Death can make us impure…emotionally impacts you

How did Shinto develop over time?
Shinto and BuddhismBuddhism arrives in Japan in 6th Century CEShinto and Buddhism accommodated one anotherBoth kami and Buddhist ideals were incorporated in spiritual livesKami, “transformations of the Buddha manifested in Japan to save all sentient beings.”a lot of blending of shinto and buddhist tradition for a very long timethis changes in the 19th centuryThe Meiji Restoration1868-1912Reformers w military backgrounds toppled the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868Emperor Mutsuhito, the Meiji Emperor (“Enlightened Rule”) became the symbol of new Japan and began the process of bringing Japan into the modern world.development of infrastructure, ships, ports, railroadsinvest in heavy stone and brick western style architecture and bring people in from diff parts of the world to teach Japanese how to make and build these thingsThe Meiji Constitutionbased on the german modelformally established Japan as a constitutional monarchy, in which the reigning emperor was “sacred and inviolable” has ultimate authorityestablished an elective “diet,” or parliamentThe change in Japan made them more European but they were also proud of their own identityState Shintoestablished in 1882 as the state religionshinto was forced to separate from buddhismno longer acceptable for Shinto shrines to have Buddhist imagery or ritualemphasized the divine origins of the emperorlinked to the cause of Japanese nationalism Amaterasu was prompted to be the most important of the gods and used to validate the role of the EmperorEmperor = divine right to rule Japan and worldSince the Japanese descended from the gods, they were superior to all other racessingling themselves out into being excluded, but builds up great nationalism in being Japanese uniquenessentitlement of superioritychosen by the godsabove all othersmake them feel more united around a shared beliefWorld War IIveneration of the emperor schoolchildren were indoctrinated w Japanese nationalismThe code of bushido was twisted so that dying for the emperor became a source of pride and fighting in his name brought him gloryThe War Endsfirebombing of major citiesHiroshimaNagasakiJapanese surrender to Allied Powersthis is the first time they experienced tough defeatAmerican Occupation (1945-1952)General Douglas MacArthur & Supreme Commander Allied Powers (SCAP)War TribunalsReconstruction and ReformThe End of State Shinto3 documents dismantled State ShintoThe Directive for the Disestablishment of State Shinto (45)The Imperial Rescript Renouncing Divinity (46)rewriting of imperial policybasically saying they’re not divine at all and not superiorThe Constitution of 1947emperor- figurehead, symbol of the stateParliament and Prime Minister elected by universal suffrageBill of RightsArticle 9Japan can’t wage war and they basically don’t have a military, only used when they’re under attackArticle 20freedom of religion is guaranteedreligion doesn’t ge state backingno person has to participate in religionstate won’t direct religious education or activities

makoto
human character must have this, “sincerity” pure wo egotism, committed

haiden
hall of worship

honden
main hallnot open to publicwhere the Kami are present

ema
plaques that you go and purchase and you can write a prayer or wish on the ema and hang it around a tree, shinto priest will collect them and bless them

matsuri
each shrine has its special festival days which are these, celebrated w grand processions and entertainment

omikoshi
during matsuri, parade kami in a hand-carried litter which is this

7-5-3
people visit shrines for blessings during important times in their lives, 3 and 7 for girls and 5 for boys

Mutsuhito
assumed real, rather than symbolic power in japan, he was emperor meiji, brought japan into modern world, imported europe and emrican experts to build govt military and educational systems, TURNING POINTEmperor Mutsuhito, the Meiji Emperor (“Enlightened Rule”) became the symbol of new Japan and began the process of bringing Japan into the modern world.development of infrastructure, ships, ports, railroadsinvest in heavy stone and brick western style architecture and bring people in from diff parts of the world to teach Japanese how to make and build these things

Meiji Restoration
assumed real, rather than symbolic power in japan, he was emperor meiji, brought japan into modern world, imported europe and emrican experts to build govt military and educational systems, TURNING POINT, shinto was forced to separate from buddhism, 1868-1912Reformers w military backgrounds toppled the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868Emperor Mutsuhito, the Meiji Emperor (“Enlightened Rule”) became the symbol of new Japan and began the process of bringing Japan into the modern world.development of infrastructure, ships, ports, railroadsinvest in heavy stone and brick western style architecture and bring people in from diff parts of the world to teach Japanese how to make and build these things

State Shinto
established in 1882 as the state religionshinto was forced to separate from buddhismno longer acceptable for Shinto shrines to have Buddhist imagery or ritualemphasized the divine origins of the emperorlinked to the cause of Japanese nationalism Amaterasu was prompted to be the most important of the gods and used to validate the role of the EmperorEmperor = divine right to rule Japan and worldSince the Japanese descended from the gods, they were superior to all other racessingling themselves out into being excluded, but builds up great nationalism in being Japanese uniquenessentitlement of superioritychosen by the godsabove all othersmake them feel more united around a shared belief

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