Socio-Economic Profile of Slum Dwellers – A Case survey ofKurla, MumbaiAbstractionA slum is an country of hapless houses and hapless people ; it is an country of passage and degeneracy, a disorganised country occupied by human derelicts a gimmick for felons for the defective, the down and out. Unprecedented flows of people from rural to urban countries cause the development of slums. The slums develop along with roads, Railway line, and bank of the river.
Slums are chiefly created because of poorness, societal retardation and unemployment of the people brings in the countryside that later moves to urban country without any option. In India, Ahmadabad, Kanopur, Nagpur, Kolkata, Mumbai, and Chennai one room dark slum can see along with route side railroad line on the bank of river and nalas and unfastened infinites in peripheral countries of the metropolis. Today 3 billion people, about half of the World’s population lives in metropoliss.
One-third of them are slum inhabitants. In Mumbai there are many indistinguishable slum country are found like Slum in Khar, Bandra, Andheri, Santakruz, kurla, Malad, Bhandup, Ghatkoper, Govandi, Mankhurd, Wadala, Antophill, Alphinstonroad, Chembur, Goregaon, Sion, Borivali, and many more slum countries are subjected to low quality of life. . The present survey made to try the socio economic status and wellness position of slum inhabitants in kurla, Mumbai. In order to measure the lodging status of slum inhabitants and wellness position of the survey country primary informations has been collected through field study and secondary informations from assorted bureaus and Municipal CorporationIntroduction‘The germination of slums in the urban countries is the direct result of greater economic chances available in the metropoliss and towns. The presentation consequence of improved criterion of populating prevailing in the urban country has besides attracted non merely the population from smaller colonies, but besides the rural migrators to about all the major urban centres ensuing in the outgrowth of slums even in the bosom of the metropoliss. In general, slums are the merchandises of failed policies, bad administration, corruptness, inappropriate ordinance, dysfunctional land markets, unresponsive fiscal systems and a cardinal deficiency of political will’ ( Das.
B, 1997, .The rapid growing of population, particularly with in the few decennaries has turned into a engorged metropolis. Congestion both of houses on land and of people within house, obtain here in the most acute signifier. Slum status prevails in all parts of the metropolis. As per the 2001 Census Abound half of Mumbai Population Live in slums ( 5.93 Million out of entire population 11.
91 million ) due to immense spread in house supply for the hapless and slums has propped up all over the metropolis and it is believed that there are 1,959 slums colonies or “blights.” About 47 per centum of slums are located on private land, 42 per centum of slums are located on public land, 10 per centum on other land and 1 per centum on railroad land most of the slums are notified ( Municipal carporation ) .Quality of life has suffered in these urban centres non merely due to migration but more so due to spread outing spread between the demands and supply of necessary services and other substructure installations. Unchecked land monetary values and unaffordable lodging forced the hapless to seek for informal solutions ensuing in mushrooming of slums and homesteader colonies ( Retnaraj, D.
, 2001 ) . Slum develops on peripheral and fringy lands on the outskirts of metropolis, on hills, inclines and low lying countries, and besides on the land which has little use to the proprietor in close hereafter. They besides developed on the land left fresh by public organic structures like Railways, Municipal Corporation, Port Trust etc ( Nangia. etal, 1993-94 ) .AimsThe chief aims of the present survey are as follows,
- To indicate out the nature and general features of slum inhabitants.
- To analyse the environmental status of sampled slum country.
- To happen out the wellness job and give suggestion to cut down the wellness job.
Data base methodological analysisA dual primary and secondary beginning of information has been taped, while following assorted research methods and techniques, to roll up the relevant information refering to analyze. These surveies chiefly based on primary and secondary beginnings of informations. Primary informations were collected through. Survey of sampled slum countries an interviewed with respondents. The field work has done during the month of August 2013. 320 families were interviewed for bringing the information about sample slum country.
Both male and female were entertained to acquire information of sampled slum countries. The information draws with the aid of a questionnaire for a comprehensive study of the kurla slum. Interview agenda have been a checked manually and the collected information on the agenda was fed in the computing machine to treat for in writing presentation of the facts. Secondary informations were collected from assorted authorities offices like Nagar nigam, nose count office. Simple per centum has besides calculated for an easy apprehension of the informations.
Study AreaKurla is a suburb of Mumbai, India. It belongs to Zone 5, Ward ‘L ‘ of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai and lies instantly north of Mumbai metropolis bounds. It has 13.
5 kilometers country with 889312 Lakh population holding the denseness of 65874. Its railroad station is one the busiest on the Mumbai suburban railroad on the cardinal and harbour railroad lines of Mumbai as is the Lokmanya Tilak Terminus ( LTT ) for out-station passenger/express trains.Problem of the survey countryIn the present survey an effort has been made to cognize the wellness position of slum inhabitants of Kurla, Mumbai. The procedure of urbanisation, industrialisation and commercialisation in the last decennary turned the metropolis, a topographic point of bigger chances attracted major ball of population non from bordering countries merely but from distant countries swelled the population of the metropolis both horizontal and perpendicular and emerging as mushrooming of slum homes in the metropolis in hit-or-miss manners. Basically they are found in all zones of the metropolis but for the present survey merely those slums have been selected which are unplanned and settled along with Nala, railroad line, route side.General information of Sampled House holdsGeneral information includes lodging status like household size, house, type of house, stuff used in the house etc.
Housing status reflects the criterion of life in slum. Housing in satisfactory lodging conditions is one of the most of import facets of people’s lives. Housing is indispensable to run into basic demands, such as shelter, but it is non merely a inquiry of four walls and a roof. Housing should offer a topographic point to kip and rest where people feel safe and have privateness and personal infinite ; someplace they can raise a household.
All of these elements help do a house a place and of class there is the inquiry whether people can afford equal lodging. In order to cognize the living status of slum inhabitants of kurla some variable has been selected of populating status like ownership of house, stuff used in house, uses of house etc. Family size is really of import characteristic of the societal status of the society. due to development and altering life manner causes the formations of atomic household alternatively of joint household. It is clearly exhibited by Table 2 that 70 per centum of the household are little size, 21.2 per centum big size and 7.
8 per centum really big. It shows that most of the households are atomic familiars.This tabular array besides indicate that about in 50 per centum houses holding less than five people, 37 per centum houses about 6 to 10 people are unrecorded and in 13 per centum houses about 10-15 people are unrecorded.
This tabular array besides a shows that 50 per centum houses accommodate the less than five people that means in these houses people are unrecorded comfortably but staying 50 percent population are non unrecorded comfortably because in slum country houses are merely one room. So there is no privateness besides.Table 1: general information of Sampled House holds
|Family size of Sampled House Hold||Status of House||Material Used in house||Use of houses|
|Size of Family||Percentage||Status of House||Percentage||Material Used in house||Percentage||Multipurpose Room Houses|
|Small||70||Own||50||Brick and Concrete||91||Residential||86 %|
|Rented||37||Mud and Thached||7.5||Commercial||10 %|
|Very Large||7.8||Other||13||Jhuggi Jhopdi||1.5||Residential +commercial||4 %|
Family size is really of import characteristic of the societal status of the society. due to development and altering life manner causes the formations of atomic household alternatively of joint household.
It is clearly exhibited by Table 2 that 70 per centum of the household are little size, 21.2 per centum big size and 7.8 per centum really big. It shows that most of the households are atomic familiars.This tabular array besides indicate that about in 50 per centum people have own house, 37 per centum people live on rent and 13 per centum people are unrecorded in other houses.
Table 1 besides exhibited the status of house about 91percent houses manner of brick and concrete 7.5 per centum house are made of clay and 1.5 per centum houses are manner of Patra and Sn and dry grass. Those people who live in pucca houses they live better life but those who live in jhuggi they passing their life in really worst Condition. Multi used room refers to the people live in a room used for kiping, cookery and other proposes. This is one of the of import hazard factor for the respiratory diseases.
Table 1 shows exhibited that 86 per centum houses in slums are used for residential intents, 10 houses are used for both Purposes residential and commercial and 4 per centum houses are used for merely commercial. But one thing more of import that in slum country houses are one room and utilizing for many intents like sleeping, cookery, and besides some clip usage as bathroom besides.Water supply and sanitation statusMany metropoliss in India are confronting the job of security safe imbibing H2O and sanitation Mumbai is no exclusion to measure the job some variable are taking into consideration like beginning of H2O, continuance of H2O supply, manner of stronger of H2O, imbibing around the house of present Pucca or kuchcha. Peoples get imbibing H2O from municipal H2O supply. The municipal H2O supply beginnings is the rainwater which is collected in big lakes like powai, vihar, tulsi etc. after treated this H2O supply.
During field study it is observed that those people who don’t have municipal H2O connexion, they get H2O from route side pat installed in the connexion grapevine or broken grapevine.Table 2: position of imbibing H2O
|Beginning of Drinking H2O||Duration of Water supply||Measure of Supplied Water||Quality of imbibing H2O||Mode of Storage of Drinking Water|
|Public Source||Private connexion||Irragular||Regular||Sufficient||Not Sufficient||Contaminated||Not Contaminated||Open Container||Close Container|
|25 %||75 %||30||70||80||20||24||76||15||85|
Table 2 indicated that 75 per centum have own their ain H2O connexion and 25 per centum people got H2O from the pipe line are go throughing through Nala, Sewerage and unfastened drainage that is capable to contaminated H2O supply. Supply of regular and equal sum o H2O supply is important for good wellness of the people analyses reveals from table 12 that 30 houses hold enduring from irregular H2O supply and 70 per centum people get regular H2O from H2O supply.The measure of H2O delivered usage for families in and of import facet of domestic H2O providers, which sufficient hygiene and hence public wellness Mumbai metropolis most of the people are enduring.During the class of field study 20 per centum family said that they don’t acquire sufficient sum of H2O merely 80 family said that they get sufficient sum of H2O. Those who have got sufficient sum of H2O they have little size of household. Safe and clear H2O is a premier requite of the people safe and clear H2O non merely impact this wellness of the people but besides affect the socio economic emolument of the state comments.In the he Study country 76 per centum people are acquiring clear imbibing H2O and 24 per centum are acquiring contaminated imbibing H2O in the signifier for coloring material, little and some clip vertical appear it is due to defective H2O supply.
The manner of storage of imbibing H2O in unfastened container is undistinguished per centum of the family of the survey country. Table 2 clearly exhibited that really undistinguished no. of people are stored H2O in unfastened container that is 15 and 85 per centum people kept H2O in close container. Storage of imbibing H2O in unfastened container is besides capable to wellness job because it invites the insects’ causes many diseases.
Health StatusHealth conditions of homo is closely associated with environment it is related to environment is good human wellness is good in the environment is if the family environment is good wellness is good if the environment is ill the people are besides ill. To analyse the wellness status of the survey country some diseases has been like into consideration.Happening of DiseasesDiseases will last every bit long as humanity itself. Diseases refer to “A status in which organic structure wellness is impaired, a going from a province of wellness, an change of the human organic structure disrupting the public presentation of critical maps. Here we discuss about some selected diseases which are caused by indoor air and out-of-door air pollution both in the survey country. Diseases like tummy job, Jaundice, Typhoid, Viral, Diarrhea, Dysentery, cholera, Hepatitis, Dengue, Asthma, Dronchitis, Tuberculosis, Chest Pain, High Blood Pressure, bosom Diseases have been taken into consideration for spacial analysis which are discussed in consecutive mode.Table 3 shows the image of wellness position of kurla slum inhabitants. It is exhibited from that 37 per centum people are enduring from Stomach Problem, 10 per centum are affected by Jaundice, 12 per centum are affected by Typhoid, 28 per centum affected by Viral, 17 per centum confronting the job Diarrhea, 20 per centum are affected by Dysentery, 23 per centum suffered from Cholera, 1.
3 per centum affected by Hepatitis, 12 per centum by Dengue, 18 per centum affected by Asthma, 10 per centum confronting the job bronchitis, 3 per centum are affected by T. B. 20 per centum complained for thorax hurting, 11 per centum by high blood force per unit area and 3 per centum people are enduring from the bosom diseases.Table 3: Happening of Diseases
|High Blood Pressure||11|
It shows that most of the people are affected by Stomach Problem followed by Viral, cholera, Dysentery and Diarrhea. It shows the positive relation between the contaminated H2O supply, manner of storage of H2O, overcrowding, and sick airing.DecisionAfter predating dissuasion sing the socio economic status of the slum country of kurla it may be concluded that though the household size is little yet they have low life infinite for unrecorded comfortably. Housing conditions non bad but they have used their house for multipurpose like as Kitchen, kiping, as a dining every bit good as bathroom besides.
It shows the bad life status.On the footing of above treatment in the context H2O supply and sanitation status and indoor air pollution it may be concluded that H2O supply is subjected to faulty distribution system and broken grapevine. Drain system is non bad in some country unfastened drainage are found but it is undistinguished. Due to illiteracy people are practising the storage of H2O in unfastened container causes many H2O born diseases like Typhoid, Jaundice, diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, Asthma, chest hurting.RecommendationFollowing steps have been to taken to improvement of the life of the slum inhabitants.
- Migration should be reduced instantly as it has been cited as the major ground of the beginning of slum.
- Anti poorness step should be taken and slum betterment programmed should be formulated.
- Slum clinic or nomadic clinic new wave should be arranged for intervention common heath promotional activities besides should be adopted.
- Local authorities should develop the schemes to forestall the formation of new slums. It should be included entree to low-cost flats on sensible monetary value, employment chances and basic substructure besides provided them.
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