Small asteroids can reach Earth’s surface every 1,000 to 10,000 years. Even though it is uncommon for asteroids to reach the surface, they can still cause damage when entering the atmosphere. For example, in 2013 an asteroid entered the atmosphere above a Russian city. Even though the asteroid burned up before reaching the ground, it caused a shockwave that injured 1,200 people. It was only 65 feet wide (Choi). A large asteroid hit Earth about 66 million years ago. When it crashed it released so much gas and dust that it changed the climate. This resulted in the extinction of the dinosaurs (Donahue). Asteroids can be extremely dangerous. This paper will explain the causes and effects of asteroids on the Earth.Asteroids were formed 4.6 billion years ago during the formation of the solar system (Choi). After the formation of the sun, a solar nebula formed. A solar nebula is a cloud of gas and dust left after the sun’s formation. Over time the nebula started to condense and form planets. Even though most of the gas and dust were put into planets, some was left over. The leftovers mostly became asteroids (Redd). They fell into the sun’s orbit between Mars and Jupiter. That formed the Asteroid belt.There are many different types of asteroids and they all have their own functions. The C-type asteroid is the most common in the solar system. It makes 75% of all known asteroids. They are grayish in color and are made of clay and stony silicate rocks. In the asteroid belt, there are many other types of asteroids as well. Such as the S-Type asteroid. They only make up 17 percent of the asteroids but they dominate the inner part of the belt. They are composed of silicate materials, nickel, and iron. These asteroids can only become dangerous if they come to close to Earth. If an Apollo asteroid, an asteroid which intersects Earth’s orbit, would come to close to Earth, it could get caught in Earth’s gravitational pull and reach the surface or burn up in the atmosphere. Amor asteroids, asteroids which orbit comes close to Earth’s, can also get caught in Earth’s gravitational pull but it is less likely. Nasa have been developing ways to protect from asteroids which could potentially hit Earth. With the new technology of today NASA believes it could destroy or divert an asteroid if necessary (Choi). With the technology of today, Earth is well prepared for an asteroid impact.Asteroids have had a huge effect on Earth in the past and they could again in the future. 66 million years ago when the asteroid that killed the dinosaurs hit it also wiped out ¾ of all life on Earth. The temperature changed so rapidly the plants and animals couldn’t adapt (Donahue). Scientist now believe the ice age was triggered by an asteroid hit as well. 2.3 million years ago the asteroid hit Earth. Scientists think that after the impact it released so much debris that it blocked the sunlight. This caused a huge drop in Earth’s temperature starting the ice age (“IMPACT OF ASTEROID IS LINKED TO START OF ICE AGE ON EARTH”). If an asteroid was to hit earth today it could cause massive amounts of damage. In 2028 an asteroid is going to nearly miss earth. If something were to happen and it did hit earth all that would be left was cockroaches. If the same asteroid hit earth but it was the size of a small house it would be as destructive as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Brain).To wrap it all up, asteroids are extremely dangerous. They have caused many disasters in the past and might do the same in the future. Space agencies around the world have developed ways to protect Earth in the case of an asteroid hit. Nature can sometimes be more destructive than anything humans could ever create.