Smart materialsSmartmaterials are materials that has properties that can be altered by makingchange in the external conditions suchas temperature, mechanical stress, electric field, magnetic field, pH, moistureetc.Theproperties that can be changed, are of different types like shape, size, electriccharge, magnetic moment, Colour, temperature, elasticity, stiffness, viscosity etc.
This changes are reversible and can be repeated many times. The property andIts degree of variation Can be controlled by changing the external stimuli in acontrolled fashion.Thereare different types of smart materials such as1.Piezoelectric materials2.Magnetostrictive materials3.
Halochromic materials4.Thermochromic materials5.Photochromic materials6.
Quantum tunnelling composites7.Shape memory alloys8.Electroluminescent materials9.Thermoelectric materials10.Magnetocaloricmaterials11.photomechanicalmaterials12.PH sensitive materialsPiezoelectricmaterialsTheseare the materials in which dimensions of the object can be changed by changingthe external electric field, and its electric charge distribution of the objectcan be changed by applying mechanical stress.
This change is reversible and canbe repeated continuously.Ithas various applications such as it is used to produce ultrasonic waves andused in censors.MagnetostrictivematerialsInthese materials the shape of the materials can be altered by altering theexternal magnetic field around it and its magnetic moment can be changed byexternal stress. These materials also used for the production of ultrasonicwaves and in worm motors, reaction mass actuators, electro hydraulic actuatorsetc.Shapememory alloysThesematerials after changing its dimensions if we are increasing the temperature,in a certain temperature it regains its own shape. Because of this propertyshape memory alloys are used in making spectacle frames, triggers of sprinklers,fire alarm systems etc.
HalochromicmaterialsThecolour of these halochromic materials will be changed when external ph changes.Because of this property this is mainly used in paints in change in colourindicates the corrosion of the material on which it is coated.ThermochromicmaterialsThermochromicmaterial’s colour is changed when the temperature in which it is exposed isaltered. Various materials shows various colour variations for variation intemperature around it this materials are used in food packaging materials andin battery strips.
Photochromic materialsThesematerial from the name itself we can know that the colour of the object changeswhen it’s surrounding lightening is altered. This change may happen by evenchanging the uv light exposure some of the materials shows permanent colourchange. This materials are used in safety markers, sun glasses and in manyappliance.
Thereare many types of smart materials that are used in a efficient way to reducemany problems and to increase the ease of making, producing, manufacturing, storingand sensing. There is a research going to incorporate smart materials in robotshaving artificial intelligence so that it can respond to the external stimuli exactlysame as the humans hence making a big revolution in the coming generations.Therefore this smart materials will be a smart revolution of our future.