economic system in which people use currency rather than bartering to buy and sell goods
a hard white pottery of extremely fine quality
1,000; Han; golden age; Tang; Song
More than _______ years before Kublai Khan’s reign, the _____ Dynasty made China into a vast empire. The fall of the dynasty in A.D. 220 left China divided. It later reunited and experienced a __________ under 2 strong dynasties: the ______ & _____.
Sui; Tang; 300
After the short-lived _____ Dynasty that reunited China between 581 and 618, the _____ Dynasty reigned for _____ years.
strong central government; expanded the nation’s borders
Two achievements of the Tang rulers were:
Who founded the Tang Dynasty?
reviving China’s official bureaucracy; grew to its largest size
Emperor Taizong took control in 626. How did he bring stability to the government? How long did his ideas impact the working of Chinese government?
expanded the borders and protected the growing population
Identify important changes that took place in China under Tang rulers:
Who was the only woman to rule China? Describe her reign.
Chang’an; on the Silk Road; different
What was the Tang capital city? Describe the city with its population and how its streets and sections were planned.
Why was it considered to be a commercial center? A cultural center?
military rulers rebelled
Why did the Tang dynasty fall?
a military leader
In 907, how was the last Tang emperor overthrown?
Who ruled China after the last Tang emperor was dethroned?
a military leader; from 960 to 1279
Who united China in 960 and began the Song dynasty? How long did the dynasty rule China?
kept a huge army; gave control to military leaders
Identify ways that the Song rulers protected the empire and prevented the military from becoming too strong:
the Han dynasty; the highly educated men who passed it were called scholar officials
Which dynasty introduced civil service exams for people to obtain government jobs? Explain how the Tang and Song Dynasties expanded their use.
they were based on Confucius’ teachings; some scholars spent 20 years studying; very few; family connections
Describe the examinations. What learning was required to pass the exams? How long did scholars study for the exams? What were their chances of passing? How did the majority of people receive jobs?
they became a part of a merit system; opened schools even the poor students could attend; could not serve in their home government
How did the tests change during the Song dynasty? How did the merit system contribute to good government? What new rules were officials required to follow during the Ming dynasty?
good governmentgrowth in the economyadvances in farming
Name three achievements of the Tang and Song dynasties:
the Mandate of Heaven; he was all-powerful and had heavenly support; nobles and warlords
Under what power did emperors rule? What did this mean? Which group gave them support to keep them in power?
developed a base of loyal supporters
How did the emperor’s power base change during the Song dynasty?
Explain economic growth of the Song dynasty
Jin; Southern Ching; Southern Song; Hangzhou
The foreign ____ kingdom took control of northern China in 1127. The Song rulers withdrew from the north and focused upon _________________. This period is called the __________________. At this time, the port of _______________ became the capital.
the Chinese government had owned all farmland; farmers owned equal lands
How did patterns of land ownership change during the Tang dynasty? How was land ownership controlled in the past?
new farming methods; technology
What two advances helped farmers to feed more people?
rice; it helped to feed the economy; this doubled
What crops had beed grown in the dry north? What new crop was grown in the south and why? Explain how this crop was cultivated. What impact did this crop have upon China’s population between 750 and 1100?
believed that trade was unworthy
During the Song dynasty, how were merchants viewed?
Sui dynasty; the worlds oldest and longest canal; the Huang and Chang
Identify the dynasty that completed the Grand Canal, and describe the Canal. What two great rivers did it connect and what regions did they originate from?
1,100 miles; rice and other goods; thousands of miles
How long was the canal and what did it carry? By the end of the Song period, how far did China’s canals stretch?
cut the cost of transportationpromoted businesshelped trade
What were ways that the Canals were beneficial to China’s economy?
copper coins (cash); heavy and hard to manage in large amount
What was the main currency during the Tang dynasty? What was the disadvantage to using it?
the government made the world’s first paper currency; easy to use
How did the type of currency change during the Song dynasty? What was it called? What was its advantages?
grew more foodtrade for craft items like pottery and clothindustries expanded
When there was a surplus of food, what did farmers trade? What was the result? (Make a flow chart with arrows to show the relationship)
they were the biggest industries of that time
Describe the Chinese industries of silk, porcelain, and iron production.
farms; trade; increased; canals
With _______ and _______ producing more goods, trade ________. In addition, _________ and the use of paper money promoted the growth of trade.
*greatest era of Chinese poetry*best preserved works: pottery figurines of horses, camels, and people*copper coins*clock*magnetic compass
*traditional arts*architects designed Buddhist temples*art (ceramics)*civil examinations (merit system)*paper currency*gun powder*sea power*first navy
Yuan; poets and artists; Mongol
The Song Dynasty was followed by the _____, and in the emperors court, many ________ continued to live.