Social workers no longer necessitate theories. All they need to make is to adhere to Government Policy and bureau pattern guidelines.Abstraction:We argue on the relevancy of societal work policies and bureau pattern guidelines and how these policies can be important to societal work pattern. The function of societal work theories as against policies is delineated as policies seem to hold taken up the function of theories. There is therefore a alteration in the attack to societal work which is directed by policies instead than theoretical models. We discuss the historical and epistemic context of societal work theory and its relation to pattern.
We besides discuss the context of societal policy maintaining in head the sociological, psychological and economic positions analyzing the scope of societal work theories, methods of intercession and attacks to pattern. This analysis is based on societal policies in the context of anti-oppressive pattern and how these societal policies relate to societal work pattern. The analysis is based on societal policies, societal theories, on theories and policies as they relate to pattern, and the dealingss between anti-oppressive policy, pattern and research. We argue for a pro-social policy attack, instead than accents on societal theories and critically measure the statement whether societal workers truly no longer necessitate theories and should adhere merely to authorities policy and bureau pattern guidelines._____________________________________________________________________Introduction to Social PolicySocial work chiefly relates to the wide purpose of appraisal and meeting people ‘s societal demands and supplying services to enable them to populate independently ( Thyer et al, 1998 ) . Social workers are required to provide to the cultural demands of society and of the people with whom they work ( Thyer et al, 1998 ) . Social work can include work within any public sector of wellness, societal service, charity, public assistance and poorness bureaus. Social workers besides work in community wellness bureaus, and voluntary sectors and as clinical psychologists, counselors, mental wellness practicians, along with doctors, head-shrinkers and other wellness attention professionals.
Sing the diverse countries in which societal workers pattern, societal work is guided by assorted theories and policies, although the implicit in construct is guided by a doctrine of public assistance.Social public assistance within societal policy relates to run intoing the demands of people and the general populace by supplying them with a scope of services from health care to instruction ( Patti, 2000 ) . The advancement towards a public assistance province is guided by rules and aims of societal public assistance. Social public assistance would by and large intend the public assistance or wellbeing of society and besides includes the services and commissariats offered to persons as provided by the province ( Patti, 2000 ) . Social public assistance and societal work are therefore related footings connoting the construct and pattern of services provided to society. However societal policies are models based steadfastly on theoretical and legal constructions and yet are distinguishable from theories as policies are guidelines or distinguishable procedural ordinances that have to be followed. Social theories on the other manus could be refuted, have small or no legal support and have fluctuations in their acceptableness and cogency. In this analysis we discuss the relevancy of all these facets of societal work.
An Analysis of Social PolicyWe distinguish four footings in our analysis – societal work versus societal public assistance and societal policy versus societal theory. Our analysis is based extensively on the 2nd facet to propose whether and why societal theories differ from societal policies. Social policies involve the survey of public assistance province and the scope of responses available to societal demands. Different countries of societal policy can include physical and mental wellness, accidents, instruction, labor and employment, retirement benefits and offense issues.
Certain societal policies may hold a direct political docket and relate to multiculturalism and cultural issues. As Malik ( 2005 ) writes, the construct of multiculturalism is a societal policy that has been put frontward by the Government and it serves to move both as ‘a description of society and a prescription for pull offing the society ‘ . Yet harmonizing to Malik the multiculturalist description of society is a deformed one as western societies may non frequently be every bit diverse as multiculturalists do suggest although the multiculturalist prescription for society creates jobs that it has been made to work out. Malik argues that the impression of civilization and individuality in multicultural societal policies are rooted in racial theory and has served the footing for a political scheme in recent old ages ( Malik, 2005 ) . Here in Malik ‘s analysis we find a nexus between a societal theory that has paved the manner for societal policies and has become a footing for political scheme as good functioning double intents. The paper decidedly asserts that the multiculturalist description or the footing of a societal policy through a theoretical model may good be distorted and even the societal policies are non implemented adequately. This is nevertheless a different point of analysis as we are concerned more with the theoretical model as relevant yet distorted and its effects on societal policies instead than the execution of the policies. The whole issue of execution of societal policies can be seen non from the position of how effectual societal policies are but how relevant they are for societal pattern within the kingdom of societal work.
The New Labour ‘s societal policies are focused on modernizing public services, undertaking and cut downing offense and refuge, cut downing waiting times for wellness and instruction services and supplying employment to people in demand. An country of particular focal point is anti-oppressive and anti-discriminatory pattern particularly with respect to race, gender and disablement. In recent old ages, women’s rightists and societal workers, have tried to develop a non-oppressive and anti prejudiced signifier of societal work and pattern ( Langley, 2001 ) .
To understand the grounds behind favoritism, an analysis of oppressive societal relationships endured by some people was indispensable to understand their responses to society. Despite the attempts of societal workers and the guidelines provided by societal policies, there is a turning concern as to how the parallel procedures of favoritism can bring forth shared apprehensions and a renewed committedness to anti-discriminatory pattern ( Labour directives, 2005 ) . Inequalities in wellness, public assistance and undertaking issues such as in-migration and mental or physical disablements are concerns within anti-oppressive pattern ( Valtonen, 2002 ; Heenan 2005 ) .Wilson and Beresford ( 2000 ) have discussed anti-oppressive pattern from the position of service users. Anti-oppressive pattern as followed by societal workers is guided by impressions of emancipatory societal policies that seek to accomplish a democratic societal system. Anti-oppressive pattern has become cardinal in both societal work theory and besides pattern and this is one facet of societal work that seems to be based non merely on policy models but have strong theoretical underpinnings with feminist attacks. However, despite a strong theoretical basis, anti-oppressive pattern related to disablement and race or ethnicity seems to be directed by legal, political and societal foundations. Wilson and Beresford reiterate the demand to turn to societal work and societal attention as a class of societal division and analyze options to bing impressions of anti-oppressive pattern based on the equal engagement of service users in assorted domains.
Anti-oppressive pattern as it relates to race or ethnicity has already been discussed from the Labour policy and position of multiculturalism with an accent on British multiculturalism and societal individuality. The Disability Discrimination Act ( DDA ) 1995 aims to stop the favoritism face by handicapped people and this Act gives handicapped people rights in the countries of: employment, instruction, entree to goods, installations and services and purchasing or leasing land or belongings ( DDA, 1995 ) . The disablement policies are therefore guided by legal models and the Disability Discrimination Act in peculiar instead than societal theories. These Acts of the Apostless and policies in bend form the footing of societal work docket in health care and societal services.However Sakamoto ( 2005 ) writes that there may be restrictions to anti-oppressive positions ( AOPs ) within societal work as there may be a deficiency of focal point at a micro and single degree.
Anti-oppressive pattern harmonizing to Sakamoto should be based on the demands and assets of service users, disputing any oppressive societal construction and besides disputing the power kineticss of the service-provider and service user relationship. The demand for inter group duologue has been recognised and this may hold particular relevancy to group theory and group work in societal work pattern. The writer ‘s emphasis to concentrate on societal pattern that reflects the demands of persons and service users suggests a policy based instead than a theory based attack, and makes it clear that societal policies instead than societal theories are what tend to drive societal work pattern. Wilson ( 1941 ) discussed societal work in footings of societal theory and the relevancy of group work. Groups work has been defined as supplying normal societal growing with a developmental position, protective and disciplinary and besides instrumental in accomplishing socially desirable terminals ( Wilson et al, 1949 ) . The theory is based on psychological and behavioral analysis of societal members and the societal worker influences the procedures within the group. Engagement in the procedure helps members use the group for their ain growing and development.Although group work societal theory has been influential in societal work pattern, the attack of societal work towards group engagement seems to be based on constructs such as ‘disability rights ‘ ‘gender equality ‘ and societal inclusion.
These attacks decidedly show that societal work pattern is as of now mostly motivated by societal policies and governmental directives instead than societal theories.Despite the current tendency in societal wok pattern it is arguable whether societal work should be and is based chiefly on societal policies instead than societal theories ( see Cemlyn, 2000 ) . Some of the advantages of societal policies seem to be the legal bases of such policies, the governmental support and support, the support of human rights groups and militants, and the consciousness approximately policies as political and economic scheme in general. For case nurses at infirmaries are made cognizant of Department of Health policies, purposes and aims and how they relate to their pattern ( NHS program, DoH, 2000 ) . Nursing theories are emphasised in instruction and preparation but may be non in pattern. The authorities being in control of support and public services makes a particular attempt to distribute consciousness on policies. Theories for that affair remain within the academic sphere and sometimes even fail to hold direct relevancy or application to pattern.
This is non merely true in instance of societal work pattern but all major countries of populace services which are mostly controlled by authorities directives, accents, support and economic concerns.Clifford and Burke ( 2005 ) have emphasised on the demand to develop anti-oppressive moralss and values within the context of societal work instruction and preparation. Puting anti-oppressive moralss and values within societal work preparation and traditional ethical theoretical accounts and theories in societal work can, harmonizing to the writers help in supplying a better usher to societal determination devising. Within this survey a new attack to traditional theories has been suggested to do societal work pattern updated harmonizing to the demands of societal policies and the attacks of societal theories. This attack of utilizing both theories and policies for societal work pattern seems to be executable and could be promoted as indispensable and of import for societal work. A new theory-based-policy model could be proposed and further research on this attack may hold to be done.DecisionSing assorted legal, societal, political and economic positions, we discussed the importance of societal policies and their relevancy and relationship to societal work pattern.
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