Software Engineering

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Last updated: November 18, 2020

Than passenger can book or reserve their ticket through Internet. In their website passenger may cheek whether eat is accessibility or not in given time and they can chose the destination on wished time and dates while online, and within suitably short response time.

The passenger should able to specify their bus travel requirements including date, destination and departure location, preferred seat place. This Information will used to check seat availability on the database.The payments of ticket and reservation by credit card as long as booking are incorporated into the design of this internet-based ticking system. For the development of the Bus Holiday Ltd software system I will choose Prototyping footwear, a working prototype of the system should be built first. A prototype is a toy implementation of a system (software), typically exhibiting limited functional capabilities, low reliability and inefficient performance (Mall, 2000). In many cases client has only limited view of what is to be delivered from the software product.The prototyping model may be engaged where there is an absence of detailed information regarding the input to the system, the processing needs and the output requirements. This model illustrates an attempt to increase flexibility of he development process by permitting the client to handle on and experiment with a working representation 1808T1120013 of the software product.

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The final development process will be carried out until the client is satisfied with the features and function of the prototype. In this particular stage, client’s real requirements are determined (Informatics College, 2009).Whenever forming prototype model is constructed, the development efforts to make use of actual program fragments or uses tools, such as; window managers and report generators.

That helps to allow operational programs to be produced quickly. This del is also wielding as the main model in which everything is imitated. It model has sequence of phases that allows the system developer to form a software model that must be constructed in prototyping process (Informatics College). The prototyping model of software development is shown in Fig. 1 .Fig.

1 Prototyping Model of Software Development 2 Requirements gathering: It is the first steps of prototype mode. In this step system developer and client meet to outline overall purposes of new software product, key out what the type of requirements are acknowledged, and scheme the areas where additional resolution s mandatory. Quick Design: The second stage of prototype model is quick design where quick implemented the aspects of the software that will be visible to the client/customer such as: input and output formats of software. Prototype.In this stage we will build variety of prototype model than it will evaluate din of next stage. Evaluate and Refine Requirements: It is the fourth stage of prototype model, the prototype is appraised by the client and it is applied to enhance the requirements of software to be advanced. Evaluate and Refine requirements are frequently occurs if client is not satisfied with particular retype model, which leads to make client/customer satisfy from their needs. This stage is also used to enabling the developer to better understanding what needs to be done.

Engineer Product: Engineer Product is the fifth stage or final stage of prototype model, it confirmed the set of requirements of intended software based on the prototype and actual development of the final software will commence. I have chosen prototype model to develop the web based software for Bus Holiday Ltd, Singapore. There are many reasons of choosing this particular model for BAL, which are listed in below: BAL (Bus Holiday Ltd) is a medium size travel agency with eight branches in the city, so prototype model is the better choice for medium level company.The prototype model is simple and easy to implement and understand the requirements of the user. The BAL is already used simple automatic system to handle own business, thus this model will be best for identifying the software requirements from existing system and its documentation to give the new concept of web based application. This model is important to illustrate the input data types, formats, messages reports, ND the interactive dialogues to the customer and its company staffs. This will be passengers’.GUI (Graphical User Interface) design of BAL system will be much easier for the user.

Because of its interface will be reviewed and evaluated from multiple way as long as prototype helps to quick design of a system after completion the design will be visible to the user. This model helps to critically examine the technical issues associated with the BAL system development such as response time of a hardware controller and the efficiency of a sorting algorithm which are major design decisions of the system.The company staffs carefully test the first prototype. Making note of its strengths and weakness, what needs to be added, and what should to be removed; that helps to gathers and analyze the remarks from the users to developers.

4 Each prototype is first quick designed that will be review by the user for system input and output, than build prototype again evaluate and refine the requirements of the software. The preceding steps are repeated as many times as necessary, till the users are satisfied that the prototype mimics the final system that they wanted.The actual development of the final BAL system can begin, with the previous confirmed set of requirement based on the final prototype. 5 Dependability measurement attributes are important factor for any computer based system development, which provides good platform, good environment, and requirement related task to the system developer.

Thus, dependability helps to meet the minimum requirement of user, and makes system highly standard with error free and robustness.There are many dependability attributes of a system some of them related with Bus Holiday Ltd software system are listed below with description: Reliability: Reliability measurement attribute, most of the time deal with, how particular software product can offer reliable facilities to the client. It has the capability to continue the operating of system in the anticipated manner throughout time. Reliability is also appraised as the possibility that a system will not break to accomplish its proposed operations over a intended time interval (Microsoft, 2013).According to the given scenarios, the web based system of BAL must be extremely reliable for run the daily operations effectively and efficiently over eight branches in the city of BAL. Because, this prototype model helps to design quick prototype of sub- system then immediately review and testing whether system is running well or not. After that system will integrated in one component than again final review and testing will be done that gives guarantee proposed system works through multiple way of its operations.Availability: Availability describes the symmetry of time that the particular system operable and operating.

It has facility of an item to be in a state to execute a necessary function under imparted contexts at an imparted time interval or moment of time from users’ did, if they have required external resources to perform. The availability is also used to measure the percentage of the whole system downtime over determined period. Usually, it is pretended by system faults, structure problem for system loading and malicious or virus attack.Availability could be intended for MATT (Mean Time to Failure) and MATT (Mean Time to Repair) functioning. (Microsoft, 2013). So, it focuses on the intended software system should be globally accessible to the passenger for online-booking their tick through Internet or WWW. During the system placement time there also considered about designing the database system to allow the user can enter his/her detail on online form and also interface of form must Consider how the system will deal that unreliable network connection: such as by designing client network with intermittently- associated aptitudes.Regard that trust restrictions within Balls system and it gives the guarantee that subsystems work certain procedure for access control or firewall, as well as broad data authentication, to enhance the resilience and availability.

There also database server and application revere can fail and DOS (Denial of Services attacks), that helps only valid or authorized users can access the system, these consideration can be implement during the system design time.The accuracy attribute used to provide the reliable process for accurate results or according to what has been applied upon. The particular system should be faster and speed to perform its task. The software system of BAL must be capable to work with an adequate exactness grade to reducing the error arising from the entering details of passenger or travel information. These data can enter by either passengers or staffs of BAL system and also the result of travel schedule as well as ticket calculations.

Anyway, system generate wrong calculation of ticket and wrong information about travel by mistakenly ordering that will make passenger unhappy, so that error and mistake mostly considered while developing the 1808T1120013 system. If user entered the incorrect information in wrong filed of from this system must pop out the notification to allow enter the right information on particular field: such as in numeric filed only valid numbers and character filed only valid characters only, that we can call validation process will implemented in the system.The usability attribute is mainly target to user satisfaction, whether system output is being useful or not. If system is not useful, it will force to meet the minim requirements of client.

The system user interface must be designed for user and client easiness, so that they are instinctive to use, can be confined and globalizes, deliver access for restricted users, and deliver a good overall user knowledge (Microsoft, 2013). The effort is needed to learn, formulate, input and understand the output of BAL system.Most of the time to interact with the system too much interaction required, o screen, input flows and user interface patterns to maximize simplicity to use the system. Data elements and controls are should be grouped in well manner and also the lay out controls and LU (User Interface) design patterns. In system should be design feedback button when user feel inadequate and particularly, for errors and Security: The system should be able to protect itself against inadvertent consider intrusion.Security is important factor of the system to minimizing the chance of malicious or unintended actions outside of the designed usage affecting the system, and avoid the revealing or loss of information. Amending the security can also gain the reliability of system by reducing the chances of an attack winning and harming system operation.

Securing a system should protect assets and prohibit unauthorized access to or adjustment of information. The components of affected system should be recoverable and system security must be provide layering privacy, reliability, and availability.The security characteristic includes such as; system authentication, essential data encryption, checking, and logging (Microsoft, 2013) The BAL system software have as a feature to make secure the information of ACH transaction. The payments of ticket usually through credit card so these booking transaction and other important data must be encrypted and implement high security reasons of unauthorized accessing from outside.

Maintainability: Maintainability is the system features for undergoing changes with high-level of easiness.These varies can influence the system components, services, features, and interfaces while appending or varying the new functionality, setting the errors, and gathering the new business requirements. Maintainability can also takes the time to fix the system to its functioning position. Improving the system performance, maintainability allows to enhance the availability and reduce the effects of run-time defects of software system. Most of the time application maintainability offers for functioning the whole quality attributes of system (Microsoft, 2013).In BAL system, maintainability is also used to consider creating the class in database for transaction perform such as: replacement, updating and inserting, new details of travel information and passenger details. Documentation of entire development process will be maintain that will help to further development of BAL software The recoverability attribute exhibition the ability to fix the system performance phase and recover the data directly pretended in case of failure time and effort needed for information during the system running. 80TH 20013 In ten case of BAL software system, if database system is failed case of either poor internet connection or connection is break that time BAL system must keep backup of each transaction to save the data before failure the system, maybe database system crash or transaction is not unreachable at its exact file location.

Thus, Balls system should be recoverable from any possible error occurrence. Flexibility: Flexibility is one of the important factor of dependability attribute of software system.Typically it measures the time of effort for changing and modifying the operational function of the system. It also include unique features to the user to add new thing and change the software system.

In BAL software system this flexibility attribute allows its user or staff to add new functionality or changes for performing the system very well: such as at ticket booking time, if passenger realized as frustrated from its I-Jell (User Interface) of form then immediately he/she will feedback to Balls staff, they will add new thing than hat user will feel comfort to enter the data on from and other things.

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