Solar the history and discovery of solar energy.

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Last updated: May 22, 2019

 Solar versus Conventional OvensMy experiment for the science fair is how solar oven compares to a conventional electric stove.  And if solar can be a valid source of not just power but also convection and in everyday life the practicalities of it.  Over the modern way of using fossil fuels over alternative sources of energy such as solar wich we will be focusing on for our oven. Which I would like to study in depth for the future of a more efficient power source in different areas and I feel like a area that a alternative source of power is cooking and I will now explain the history and discovery of solar energy. The history behind solar cells and where they were first created is where I will be starting  today.  The discovery of  solar cells was a man named Charles Fritts who at thirty three had a brilliant idea to make a conductor and cover it in a layer of gold to more effectively contain and transfer heat and worked in dim lit areas but while this impressed some in the scientific community .

 Most were impressed by the steam plant built by edison. So while most of the scientific community were impressed by the invention of the coal power plant so the panels where mostly overlooked.  Also there was even more salt upon  for the wound of the public image. Which was already being smeared by Eddison.

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Is that the solar panels could generate energy without moving and the public called it a con and a sham. Which in turn led them to believe a solar engine was the only way to gather energy because of the moving parts. While fritz invented the first solar cell there was another man. His name was Hein  Who first discovered the photovoltaic effect .

Which is an effect that occurs when light is absorbed by a material and the heat  creates voltage .  Also he experimented with different materials and oils to find the best material for the job, of producing heat and the voltage.  Which in turn led him to try to find for the most efficient conductor.

Which this later drove him to chemical engineering to develop a combination of metals and oils. Which led to the photoelectric cell and this cell used photons in packets to make high amounts of energy in a relatively short period of time . But was not always great amounts of energy sometimes it would miss entire proton packs and create no energy. As well had to have a high amount of sunlight to work.

So the scientific community even later on would still think solar energy was unreliable for many more years. Which would later to be proven false and this cell was never released to the general public because He thought they would overlook it for the coal power plant.  https://www.britannica.

com/science/photoelectric-effect But there was a man who saw great promise in the world of solar power that man is Charles Greeley. He spent most of his years studying solar radiation and in his later days saw great promise for solar power and how it was useful for mankind and the environment. So a lot of his time was dedicated to studying the practicalities of solar radiation and in nineteen forty create a practical consumer solar oven.  As a cheaper cooking alternative and filled for a patent in nineteen forty one. But as for the first solar oven that goes to horace de Saussure a swiss physicist

edu/collections/search/object/nmah_1167126  But as for the science of my experiment that would be a convection oven vs a solar oven and. Which would get to 350 degrees fahrenheit faster but before we get to the experiment we must get to the science behind both and what makes them different and in what different ways do they heat and cook food. I will now give you the definitions of both the solar oven and conventional oven. A solar oven is a device which uses direct sunlight to cook. Conventional oven is an oven that circulates hot air around the food to cook. Wich now we go to the science behind both of them.

Convection is the transfer of heat through molecules and atoms. which is caused by the hot air transferring its heat into the chosen item, That you would want to cook. Also the motion of the hot air is the most important in our case using a convection oven. Which traps the hot air in a confined space bosting the heat transfer of the two items and also making the process take a lot less time.

Compared to letting it cook in hot air outside because the air is not confined. So it will not get as hot. The air also gets much hotter than anything a normal sunny day could muster. However the convection oven uses electricity to heat up coils which in turn heat up the air. As well as the inside of the oven  is silver.  Silver is often used because it is often called the best conductor for heat and most convection ovens don’t use gas.  Because gases are very poor conductors of heat if they are not trapped.Now for the history of ovens the first ever ovens where wood fired ovens.

Also known as bread ovens because they were commonly used to make flatbreads. The first recorded use of a wood fired ovens was 5000 years ago and was normally a clay pot put over coals. As soon as it was heated at an optimal temperature the food would be put in such as flatbreads as well as grilled cereals.

 Which would be common in Egypt. But the wood ovens we know of are more Roman in nature because they had the idea of laying it flat and would make a large opening.  In the front where it would consume less wood and some say this was also the first convection oven.

Because they would put out the fire at a temperature of their liking and cook on the “waves of heat”. Which has proven to be a very good technique since we still use it 2000 years later         ( temperature sensor was not made until the Renaissance Era.

Where at first there where the proposal of using the freezing and boiling point of water . As the bases of the coldest and the hottest wich was tried to no avail because it was incredibly difficult to measure.  Because of the lack of proper units that was latter answered.

 By a man named Gay Lussac and investigated gas laws and discovered that the gas rises in volume by “1/267 degree celsius” which led to the current absolute zero point of 273.15 being determined Which led to the thermometer that we all know was invented in Italy By a man named Santorio Santorio and how he did it was he sealed liquid. In a tube and observed how it moved up and down the tube and eventually put the measurements in celsius.  Later along the road but still lack complete accurateness with the readings But it is still what we use till this day but in fahrenheit. If you use a handheld thermometer you use Santorio Santorio thermometer also it has been modified over the many years to get a lot more precise .  https://www.           The answer to the witch came first the convection oven or the solar oven. The romans technichly made a convection oven but the convection oven we know of is quite recent.  So i would consider the solar oven to come first not counting the romans.  But if counting them they would have discovered and made a convection oven 3000 years earlier than the solar oven .

          So that concludes my research paper            

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