Type: Process Essays
Sample donated: Connie Graves
Last updated: September 8, 2019
Solid wastes could be defined asnon-liquid and non-gaseous products of human activities, regarded as beinguseless (Babayemi and Dauda, 2009).
Its origin is mainly from households,municipal and construction (Munier, 2005). The generation and management ofsolid wastes are the problems facing both developing and developed countries.Generation of solid waste has become an increasing environmental and publichealth problem everywhere in the world, particularly in developing countries.Fast expansion of urban, agricultural and industrial activities spurred byrapid population growth has produced vast amounts of solid and liquid wastesthat pollute the environment and destroy resources (UNEP, 2005). In manycountries with increase in population and the rising demand for food and otheressentials, there has been a rise in the amount of solid waste being generatedmaking its management and disposal problematic (SS.Asadi et al, 2005).
Solidwaste management has long been a worldwide environmental problem. This isbecause of the rapid growth of population and urbanization that decreases thenon renewable resources and disposal of waste and toxic waste arbitrarily, as aresult of this major environmental issues posing stress to the arrival of humanbeing (Allen et al, 1997). The most common problems associated withinappropriate management of solid waste include transmission diseases, firehazards, foul odor, atmospheric and water pollution, aesthetic pain andeconomic victims (Jilani et al, 2002). The process of a landfill siting is oneof the most difficult tasks related to solid waste management systems becauseit is subject to municipal and government funding, government regulation, growingenvironmental awareness, increasing population densities, public healthconcerns, reduced land availability for landfills and increasing political andsocial opposition to the establishment of landfill sites (Lin and Kao, 1999).Identifying landfill sites is a complex process where many factors need to betaken into consideration. Examples of such factors include social andenvironmental factors, geomorphologic features and technical parameters. Wastedisposal sites must preserve the biophysical environment and ecology in thesurrounding area (Erkut and Moran, 1991; Lober, 1995; Siddiqui et al.
, 1996).Economic factors, which include the cost of acquiring land as well asdevelopment and operation costs, must also be considered (Erkut and Moran,1991; Yesilnacar and Cetin, 2008). Transport costs, owing to the distance fromwaste production centers and distance from main access roads, are also animportant factor (Wang et al., 2009).Iraq, an Arab country with a populationexceeding 32 million inhabitants, is experiencing rapid economic growth.
This,together with a growing population, increasing individual incomes and theinstability generated by sectarian conflicts, has led to worsening solid WasteManagement issues. Recurrent wars in Iraq have, also, created a lastinginstability, and as a result, the country has become, isolated and failed tokeep pace with the continuous scientific progress of more developed countries.In 2016, Sulaymaniyah city with 702,882 persons produced 220635 (tonnes) of solid waste with generationof solid waste 0.86 kg/(capita. day) (Slaymaniyah directory of municipality),It means that about (60.
5) tons waste is daily produced in sulaymaniyah Sulaymaniyahdirectory of Municipality. There is an absence of modern, efficient wastehandling and disposal infrastructure as well as a general lack of interestin/awareness of health and environmental issues. Unfortunately, the hallmarksof landfill sites in Iraq are groundwater contamination, surface waterpollution, spontaneous fires, large-scale greenhouse-gas emissions andincreasing numbers of insects and rodents in/ around the area (Alnajjar, 2013).This study uses the concepts of thegeographical information systems (GIS), and a spatial multi-criteria decisionanalysis should be used in landfill siting because there are powerful,integrated tools available to solve the problem of landfill site selection.
Decision makers often use MCDA (Multicriteria decision analysis) to handlelarge quantities of complex information. GIS and AHP are powerful integratedtools used to solve the problem of landfill site selection. AHP is amulti-criteria decision making approach and was developed by Thomas Saaty in 1980 to unify thesemulti-criteria in the process of making decision.
This method can be used to solvecomplex decision problems and as a tool to support decision making. It uses amulti-level hierarchical structure of objective criteria and sub-criteria(Ersoy and Bulut, 2009). GIS plays a significant role in a landfill siting. GISallows data to be displayed and managed efficiently from variety of sources,and it reduces the time and cost in the siting process.
GIS may also be usedfor identifying routes for transporting waste to transfer stations and then toa landfill site and vice versa (Kontos et al., 2003; Delgado et al., 2008;Moeinaddini et al., 2010).