Survey of American Literature I

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Last updated: May 10, 2019

What happened in 1517?
Martin Luther nailed the 95 Theses to the door of the church.

This started the reformation of the church.

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Who came over on the Mayflower?
William Bradford’s group in 1620

When did John Winthrop come over?
He came over on the Arbella, in 1630

When was the Antinomian Controversy?
Between 1636 – 1638

When was John Wheelwright’s Fast-Day Sermon?
19 January 1637

What is Justification?
being saved by Christ.

What is Sanctification?
It is living “Christ-like” –

How did the Antinomians feel about Sanctification and Justification?
They believed that there was no reason to live a sanctified life, it had no real bearing on being saved. Basically, either you were saved or not, and no individual action can change that. Sanctification cannot even be used as evidence of Justification.

How did the Elders/Winthrop feel about Sanctification and Justification?
They believed that if you are saved (justified) you will lead a sanctified life – but leading a sanctified life does not lead to justification.

Who were the main players of the Antinomians?
Anne Hutchinson, John Wheelwright, John Cotton, Henry Vane

Who were opposed to the antinomians?
John Winthrop, John Wilson, the church ministers/elders

Where was the election held for Governor?
Cambridge.

What was Jane Thompkins’ dilemma?
Jane Thompkins was trying to find an objective accounting of the relationship between the Puritans and the Indians and all the reports she got from historians were not only different, but hugely so – some complete opposites of each other. She realized that history is written from the frame of reference of the author, and is shaped by their biases. Because of this, critically thinking, all history could be considered not exactly true.

What challenge did Jane Thompkins see with post structuralism with the study of history?
The problem is that if all accounts of events are determined through and through by the observer’s frame of reference, then one will never know, if any given case, what really happened.

How did the beginning and ending of Jane Thompkins’ essay mirror each other?
In the beginning she discussed how when she was a child, her mother would take her to the Indians, who were available in their headdresses, able to be poked and prodded by the children (like animals in a zoo), but because reality did not live up to her imagination, she was always disappointed. She preferred the Indians of her imagination/dreams. In the end, her dilemma is that she doesn’t use what she has learned about the Indians past relations to help them in the present.

What historians does Jane Thompkins mention in her essay, and what’s interesting about them? (7)
Perry Miller – He says in his preface that there was a “vacant wilderness” in the new world.Alden Vaughan (1965) He held that the Puritans were very humane and just to the Indians. The colonists were described with male-like terms, the Indians in female, negative ways.

Unified, visionary, disciplined, dynamic vs. divided, self-satisfied, undisciplined, and static. He also used the metaphor of penetrating the fragmented and passive by the consolidated and active.John Higham – Pointed out that Vaughan’s book could only have been written pre-civil rights.Francis Jennings – Demonized the puritans – they lied, stole, cheated the Indians every chance they got.

James Axtell – Decided that American Indians were a determinant in history. – and that it would have been a privilege to have been captured by the indiansCalvin Martin – wrote about the relationship between the Indians and the animals they hunted, and how the colonists changed that relationship.Norman Heard wrote of the brutality the captives went through.

What dilemma did Mary Rowlandson have when being held captive by the Indians?
That she was being punished by God for failing to keep the Sabbath, when her captives are kind, she attributes it to divine providence, when cruel, she blames the Indians.When asked by King Philip to come smoke with him, she discusses the evils of tobacco.

She doesn’t even mention that King Philip is the “chief of chiefs” for the Indians.

In the Model of Christian Charity, what does Winthrop mean with his metaphor about the clock
That when God when wants something to happen, like the hammer of the clock to strike the bell, he doesn’t act on the hammer, he affects the first cog in the chain that leads to the ringing of the bell – a kind of “god works in mysterious ways” kind of thing.

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