?Sustainable balance and contamination. The proportions in an

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Last updated: August 26, 2019

?Sustainable Urban Ecosystem?Kaylee Allan SNC1?Presentation will include?Ecology strand•Chains, Webs and Pyramids•Cycles of Nature•Habitat Fragmentation?Electricity Strand•Electrical Fundamentals•Electric Motors •Electric Vehicles •Electricity Generation?Chemistry Strand•Atoms•Chemical Bonding •Chemical reactions•Hydrogen Fuel Cells •?Ecology Strand-Part One?Chains, webs and Pyramids?Table of Producer and Consumers 1?Table of Producer and Consumers 2?Table of Producer and Consumers 3?Table of Producer and Consumers 4???Ecology Strand- Part 2?Cycles Of  Nature?Urban Water Cycle ?Urban Water Cycle Two problems that the urban environment creates for thewater cycle are balance and contamination. The proportions in an urban environment are very differentfrom a natural cycle. Anexample of this is in a natural environments, trees are in place to soak up and catchthe water from pooling in the ground. But urban development  often involves deforestation and the oncethick forests, have no canopy tocatch water. This causes the ground to erode and hurt the environment.

  In addition, precipitation is much higher inrural areas due to urban microclimates, because of human urbanization. Thesepractices have lead toincreased runoff floodingin our cities because the cycle is not proportionate. Furthermore the urban environment causes a lot ofpollutants to fall into the water cycle to contaminate lakes, oceans andrivers. When water come in contact with urban landscapes and surfaces,  polluting them with oil, metal,  plastic and other litter it is converted intostorm water. The asphalt and concrete has no cracks, so the storm water flowsdirectly into natural water sources including waterways, lakes and oceans whichare sometime sources of clean water. Not only does this impact the humans whoreply on water for drinking, recreation and landscaping, the wildlife needs ittoo. It damages the quality of water that aquatic animals live in.

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animals thatrely on the water for drinking can eat litter or get caught in it. Thechemicals disturb the aquatic animals breeding cycles. It overflowing erodesstreams and alters the water cycle in a wider range.  ??Composting Cycle ?Ecology strand- Part 3?Habitat Fragmentation ?Habitat Fragmentationa)The effect of urbanlandscape on habitat fragmentation is critical. Human settlements, includingthe thousands of houses, workplaces, farms, and highways have replaced morethan 80% of Ontario’s temperate forest habitats and ecosystems. These actionscause habitat destruction and erosion. They will also prevent wildlifemigration, and will increase hunting, fishing and other human practices thatare harmful to wildlife.

Populations of species begin to decrease and animalsbecome in danger of becoming extinct. (Reference 42)?b)The three mainfactors that affect habitat sustainability are size, proximity and integrity. 1.

Size-Large blocks maintain large and stable communities whilesmaller blocks are unable to house large communities, making them fragile.2.Proximity-When ecosystems are closer to each other, the animalscan interact and enhance the usage of space.

3.Integrity-When humans have access to roads, trails and passagesthough ecosystems, it increase the operation of harmful practices includingfishing and hunting.4.(Reference 42)c)I think size ofhabitat has the most impact on urban habitat. I think this because they supportlarger animals and more stable communities. This means that size affects whatanimals can survive and how many can survive.

For example a block that supportsa squirrel will not support a larger animal like a bear, because it needs morespace. Another example is stable populations, where a block that supports tenhealthy deer may support thirty deer but they will have to compete for food.When blocks are larger, it can support both larger and more stable communities. (Reference 42)? ?Habitat FragmentationD) One way that cityplanners can reduce the impact of the main factors affecting urbanhabitat sustainability is building wildlife corridors. When habitats are split into different blocks,many animals will risk their life to cross to the other block. Thisputs them in danger of humans, cars andother threats. Building wildlife corridors will promote safe migration for animals from oneblock to another while reducing theimpact of urban expansion.?Electricity Strand-Part 1?Electrical Fundamentals?Describing the Relationship Between Electrons and:i.

Electrical Currenti.The flow of electriccurrent is measured by the continuous flow of electrons to and from the sourcein a circuit. It can be measured with a Ammeter in Amperes. ii.Electrical Potential Differencei.Potential differenceis the difference in potential energy on either side of a unit in a circuit. Itis simply measuring the energy of electron flow and the difference before andafter it travels through a unit.     iii.

Electrical Resistancei.Electrical resistanceis the ability for a material to oppose the flow of electric current, inrelation the electrons, electrical resistance is the impeding force makes itmore difficult for electrons to flow?(Reference 42, 43)??Electricity Strand-Part 2?Electric Motors?Electric Motors Changing Energy?An electric motor is made using Flemings left hand rule. Hisrule demonstrates that when a magnetic field is applied to a conducting wirewith the flow of current, force is applied to the conducting wire, pulling itperpendicular to the field and in the direction of electron flow. In anelectric motor circuit, a conducting wire is placed in a “U’ shape with theresult that the energy will travel in two different directions inside themagnetic field.

When it is turned on, the magnet and current flow pulls the Ushaped coil in a clockwise position continuously. This turns the electric flowin to kinetic energy. However, if it were to continue to spin in the samedirection, the wires would tangle up or the flow would be changing directionsin the circuit. The way engineers avoid this in two ways. The first way toavoid this is using  device called acommutator. A commutater looks like a ring cut into two semicircles.

Thiscomponent is attached to either side of the U shaped coil, when the coilrotates,  it reverses the electriccurrents direction, so the current flows the correct direction into the batteryterminal. The other way that engineerschange the flow direction n is using a nelectric current that changes direction called altering current , and is aeasier method in motors. The kinetic energy is then then harnessed to powerdevices.

?(Reference 45, 46)?Effects of Electrical Energy Factors Because electric motors use potential difference and current to run, increasing one or bothwill make the motor run faster. Decreasing the resistance in a motor will alsomake the motor work faster and  moreefficiently. On the other hand, if you were to decrease the voltage or current,and increase the resistance, the motor would be a lot slower and it would notcreate a lot of kinetic energy.

In addition changing the magnetic field wouldeffect the speed of the kinetic energy. (Reference 45, 46)?Electricity Strand-Part 3?Electric Vehicles ?Electric Vehicles a)Arranging batteriesin an electric Vehicle to increase:i.Potential difference- Designers can put the batteries inparallel to increase the potential difference to be equal as the source. ii.

Current- Designers can put the batteries in parallel todecrease the resistance and split the current among loads. ?b)Primary cellbatteries are electric cells that can only be used once, and a secondary cellbattery is a cell that can be recharged. ?c)Most Electricvehicles use secondary cell batteries. This is because the electric cars aredesigned to sustain power from the cells over long periods of time.

The averageelectric cars can run for up to 320 km on a full charge, and they can take aslow as half an hour to charge. Electric vehicles have to use Secondary cellbatteries because it would be extremely inconvenient and expensive tocontinuously purchase disposable batteries. ?d)A move from gasolineto electric vehicles could improve the sustainability of the urban ecosystem bydecreasing the amount of greenhouse gases and pollutants are produced. Inaddition this will limiting the overuse of a non-renewable source, gasoline. Electricvehicles decrease the amount of greenhouse gases because emissions for electricvehicles are smaller than burning gasoline or diesel.(References 47-52)??Electricity Strand-Part 4?Electricity Generation?Electricity Generation a)The difference between renewable and non renewable electricitygeneration is where it comes from.

Renewable energy comes from a naturalresource that is unlimited or replenishable and nonrenewable energy comes froma resource that can not be replaced as quickly as it is consumed.b)How Electricity is generated from each of the followingrenewable sources:i.Fusion- Electricityis generated from fusion by heating two lighter atomic nuclei at high pressuresto bond and form a heavy nucleus that releases energy.

  This energy can be used to power almost anything. (Reference53,54)ii.Tidal- This form ofenergy uses the natural tides from oceans and lakes to spin turbines as it isflowing and ebbing, in and out of the turbine. The turbines, moving in bothdirections, make clean energy  that can be used to power cities.

(Reference55)iii.Solar- Electricity isgenerated using solar power byusing  Photovoltaic cells on solarpanels. The panels convert the sunlight’s rays into direct current .  (Reference 56)iv.HydroElectric-Electricity is generated by structures that collect water and releaseit to the other side in a spinning motion .This formof generation uses fast flowing water to spin an underwater turbine. Theturbine spins and  creates kinetic energy that can be used to power thing with high potentialdifference and current . (Reference 57)v.

Wind- Power ingenerated from wind using massive wind turbines that the wind pushes in kineticenergy into a electric flow of current. These practices are extremelyenvironmentally friendly as the release no gases or pollutants and don’tconsume any water. This type of power is consistent  yearly however it  is not as reliable or constant or other practices.  (Reference 58)c)City planners can increase the generation ofelectricity from renewable sources within the city by giving businesses, homeowners and corporationsbenefits for installing and using renewable energy.  This can comein forms of electrical discounts , rebates, and tax refunds.

  For example,businesses that install  solar panels ontheir property can help power the city and the businesses can collect a rebatefrom going green .  ?Chemistry Strand- Part 1?Atoms?Bohr Diagrams?Stabilityi.Valence shell: The valence shell is the outermost orbitof a atom.ii.Atomic stability is the state in which the valence shellof an atom is in. An atom is unstable when the valence shell is not full. Atthis point, the reactivity of the atom is high in order to react with otheratoms and bond with them to create a full valence shell, deeming the atomstable.iii.

Electrons in valence shell of these atoms to be stable•Hydrogen-2•Oxygen-8Reference 59 ?Chemistry strand-Part 2?Chemical Bonding?Chemical Bonding?There are two types of chemical bonds, ionic andcovalent. The difference between ionic and covalent bonds is the type of atomsthat are bonded together. Covalent bonds are made between two non-metal atoms.Ionic bongs are bonds between a non-metal and a metal.

?The bonds in a water molecule are covalent becausehydrogen and oxygen are both non-metals. ?Chemistry Strand-Part 3?Chemical Reactions?Chemical change a)Five pieces of Evidence in a Chemical Change (CHGLP)1.C-Colour change2.H-Heat produced/absorbed3.G-Gas produced4.L-Light produced5.P-Precipitate produced??Equations of Water?Equations of Water  The evidence that this is a chemical change is lightproduction. When creating water by using hydrogen and oxygen, you will need asmall  form of energy to bond the atoms.

Hydrogen is extremely flammable and oxygen is explosive, a spark of heat willbond the atoms. The resulting evidence is a loud bang and a bright lightproduced. We know that light production is one of the five pieces of chemicalchange so we can effectively label this experiment to have a chemical change. ( Reference 61,62)•?Chemistry Strand-Part 4?Hydrogen Fuel Cells?Hydrogen Fuel Cells?A hydrogen fuel cell is able to harness the energy fromthe reaction of hydrogen and oxygen for motor vehicles by chemically fusingtogether the particles .

This power releases heat, water and energy. The current energy flows through anelectric motor, to power the car. ? Hydrogen can be extracted from fossil fuels or it canbe produced by separation of  watermolecules called electrolysis. Both of these processes use energy to get hydrogen.?Hydrogen fuel cell cars are viewed equal to electric carbecause neither of  them produceemissions or pollution through the tailpipe.

They can also both run onrenewable resources, (battery operated can run on wind or solar power,)  which makes them more efficient.  However both of them can produce otheremissions  in the ways the generate theelectricity, making them viewed as equals. ?If I had to choose between hydrogen and electric for acity, I would chose an electric car because cities are very populated and thereare not many places that sell hydrogen as a source, which is extremelyexpensive .

Electric cars,will have many great priced charging places in a city so they will be easier tofind and cheaper.  These two reasons makea electric car more favorable to me. ?(References 63-66)?Bibliography?References?References?ReferencesReference 17http://www.wwf.ca/conservation/species/monarch_butterfly/ Reference18https://monarchbutterflygarden.net/stop-monarch-predators/Reference 19 http://www.psu.edu/dept/nkbiology/naturetrail/speciespages/cricket.htm Reference 20https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_birds_of_OntarioReference 21https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Red-tailed_Hawk/lifehistoryReference 22https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Red-tailed_Hawk/lifehistory#at_habitatReference23http://animals.sandiegozoo.org/animals/red-tailed-hawkReference 24http://www.birdweb.org/birdweb/bird/spruce_grouseReference 25www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Spruce_Grouse/lifehistory#at_food Reference 26http://www.audubon.org/field-guide/bird/spruce-grouseReference 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