?Sustainable balance and contamination. The proportions in an

?Sustainable Urban Ecosystem

?Kaylee Allan SNC1

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?Presentation will include

?Ecology strand

•Chains, Webs and Pyramids

•Cycles of Nature

•Habitat Fragmentation

?Electricity Strand

•Electrical Fundamentals

•Electric Motors

•Electric Vehicles

•Electricity Generation

?Chemistry Strand


•Chemical Bonding

•Chemical reactions

•Hydrogen Fuel Cells

?Ecology Strand-Part One

?Chains, webs and Pyramids

?Table of Producer and Consumers 1

?Table of Producer and Consumers 2

?Table of Producer and Consumers 3

?Table of Producer and Consumers 4



?Ecology Strand- Part 2

?Cycles Of  Nature

?Urban Water Cycle

?Urban Water Cycle

Two problems that the urban environment creates for the
water cycle are balance and contamination.

 The proportions in an urban environment are very different
from a natural cycle. An
example of this is in a natural environments, trees are in place to soak up and catch
the water from pooling in the ground. But urban development  often involves deforestation and the once
thick forests, have no canopy to
catch water. This causes the ground to erode and hurt the environment.  In addition, precipitation is much higher in
rural areas due to urban microclimates, because of human urbanization. These
practices have lead to
increased runoff flooding
in our cities because the cycle is not proportionate.

Furthermore the urban environment causes a lot of
pollutants to fall into the water cycle to contaminate lakes, oceans and
rivers. When water come in contact with urban landscapes and surfaces,  polluting them with oil, metal,  plastic and other litter it is converted into
storm water. The asphalt and concrete has no cracks, so the storm water flows
directly into natural water sources including waterways, lakes and oceans which
are sometime sources of clean water. Not only does this impact the humans who
reply on water for drinking, recreation and landscaping, the wildlife needs it
too. It damages the quality of water that aquatic animals live in. animals that
rely on the water for drinking can eat litter or get caught in it. The
chemicals disturb the aquatic animals breeding cycles. It overflowing erodes
streams and alters the water cycle in a wider range. 


?Composting Cycle

?Ecology strand- Part 3

?Habitat Fragmentation

?Habitat Fragmentation

a)The effect of urban
landscape on habitat fragmentation is critical. Human settlements, including
the thousands of houses, workplaces, farms, and highways have replaced more
than 80% of Ontario’s temperate forest habitats and ecosystems. These actions
cause habitat destruction and erosion. They will also prevent wildlife
migration, and will increase hunting, fishing and other human practices that
are harmful to wildlife. Populations of species begin to decrease and animals
become in danger of becoming extinct. (Reference 42)


b)The three main
factors that affect habitat sustainability are size, proximity and integrity.

1.Size-Large blocks maintain large and stable communities while
smaller blocks are unable to house large communities, making them fragile.

2.Proximity-When ecosystems are closer to each other, the animals
can interact and enhance the usage of space.

3.Integrity-When humans have access to roads, trails and passages
though ecosystems, it increase the operation of harmful practices including
fishing and hunting.

4.(Reference 42)

c)I think size of
habitat has the most impact on urban habitat. I think this because they support
larger animals and more stable communities. This means that size affects what
animals can survive and how many can survive. For example a block that supports
a squirrel will not support a larger animal like a bear, because it needs more
space. Another example is stable populations, where a block that supports ten
healthy deer may support thirty deer but they will have to compete for food.
When blocks are larger, it can support both larger and more stable communities.
 (Reference 42)



?Habitat Fragmentation

D) One way that city
planners can reduce the impact of the main factors

affecting urban
habitat sustainability is building wildlife corridors.

 When habitats are split into different blocks,
many animals will risk

 their life to cross to the other block. This
puts them in danger of

humans, cars and
other threats. Building wildlife corridors will

 promote safe migration for animals from one
block to another

while reducing the
impact of urban expansion.

?Electricity Strand-Part 1

?Electrical Fundamentals

?Describing the Relationship Between Electrons and:

i.Electrical Current

i.The flow of electric
current is measured by the continuous flow of electrons to and from the source
in a circuit. It can be measured with a Ammeter in Amperes.

ii.Electrical Potential Difference

i.Potential difference
is the difference in potential energy on either side of a unit in a circuit. It
is simply measuring the energy of electron flow and the difference before and
after it travels through a unit.     

iii.Electrical Resistance

i.Electrical resistance
is the ability for a material to oppose the flow of electric current, in
relation the electrons, electrical resistance is the impeding force makes it
more difficult for electrons to flow


(Reference 42, 43)


?Electricity Strand-Part 2

?Electric Motors

?Electric Motors Changing Energy

?An electric motor is made using Flemings left hand rule. His
rule demonstrates that when a magnetic field is applied to a conducting wire
with the flow of current, force is applied to the conducting wire, pulling it
perpendicular to the field and in the direction of electron flow. In an
electric motor circuit, a conducting wire is placed in a “U’ shape with the
result that the energy will travel in two different directions inside the
magnetic field. When it is turned on, the magnet and current flow pulls the U
shaped coil in a clockwise position continuously. This turns the electric flow
in to kinetic energy. However, if it were to continue to spin in the same
direction, the wires would tangle up or the flow would be changing directions
in the circuit. The way engineers avoid this in two ways. The first way to
avoid this is using  device called a
commutator. A commutater looks like a ring cut into two semicircles. This
component is attached to either side of the U shaped coil, when the coil
rotates,  it reverses the electric
currents direction, so the current flows the correct direction into the battery
terminal. The other way that engineers
change the flow direction n is using a n
electric current that changes direction called altering current , and is a
easier method in motors. The kinetic energy is then then harnessed to power

?(Reference 45, 46)

?Effects of Electrical Energy Factors

Because electric motors use potential difference and current to run, increasing one or both
will make the motor run faster. Decreasing the resistance in a motor will also
make the motor work faster and  more
efficiently. On the other hand, if you were to decrease the voltage or current,
and increase the resistance, the motor would be a lot slower and it would not
create a lot of kinetic energy. In addition changing the magnetic field would
effect the speed of the kinetic energy.

(Reference 45, 46)

?Electricity Strand-Part 3

?Electric Vehicles

?Electric Vehicles

a)Arranging batteries
in an electric Vehicle to increase:

i.Potential difference- Designers can put the batteries in
parallel to increase the potential difference to be equal as the source.

ii.Current- Designers can put the batteries in parallel to
decrease the resistance and split the current among loads.


b)Primary cell
batteries are electric cells that can only be used once, and a secondary cell
battery is a cell that can be recharged.


c)Most Electric
vehicles use secondary cell batteries. This is because the electric cars are
designed to sustain power from the cells over long periods of time. The average
electric cars can run for up to 320 km on a full charge, and they can take as
low as half an hour to charge. Electric vehicles have to use Secondary cell
batteries because it would be extremely inconvenient and expensive to
continuously purchase disposable batteries.


d)A move from gasoline
to electric vehicles could improve the sustainability of the urban ecosystem by
decreasing the amount of greenhouse gases and pollutants are produced. In
addition this will limiting the overuse of a non-renewable source, gasoline. Electric
vehicles decrease the amount of greenhouse gases because emissions for electric
vehicles are smaller than burning gasoline or diesel.

(References 47-52)


?Electricity Strand-Part 4

?Electricity Generation

?Electricity Generation 

a)The difference between renewable and non renewable electricity
generation is where it comes from. Renewable energy comes from a natural
resource that is unlimited or replenishable and nonrenewable energy comes from
a resource that can not be replaced as quickly as it is consumed.

b)How Electricity is generated from each of the following
renewable sources:

i.Fusion- Electricity
is generated from fusion by heating two lighter atomic nuclei at high pressures
to bond and form a heavy nucleus that releases energy.  This energy can be used to power almost anything. (Reference

ii.Tidal- This form of
energy uses the natural tides from oceans and lakes to spin turbines as it is
flowing and ebbing, in and out of the turbine. The turbines, moving in both
directions, make clean energy  that can be used to power cities. (Reference

iii.Solar- Electricity is
generated using solar power by
using  Photovoltaic cells on solar
panels. The panels convert the sunlight’s rays into direct current .  (Reference 56)

Electric-Electricity is generated by structures that collect water and release
it to the other side in a spinning motion .This form
of generation uses fast flowing water to spin an underwater turbine. The
turbine spins and  creates 
kinetic energy that can be used to power thing with high potential
difference and current . (Reference 57)

v.Wind- Power in
generated from wind using massive wind turbines that the wind pushes in kinetic
energy into a electric flow of current. These practices are extremely
environmentally friendly as the release no gases or pollutants and don’t
consume any water. This type of power is consistent  yearly however it  is not as reliable or constant or other practices.  (Reference 58)

c)City planners can increase the generation of
electricity from renewable sources within the city by giving businesses, homeowners and corporations
benefits for installing and using 
renewable energy.  This can come
in forms of electrical discounts , rebates, and 
tax refunds.  For example,
businesses that install  solar panels on
their property can help power the city and the businesses can collect a rebate
from going green . 

?Chemistry Strand- Part 1


?Bohr Diagrams


i.Valence shell: The valence shell is the outermost orbit
of a atom.

ii.Atomic stability is the state in which the valence shell
of an atom is in. An atom is unstable when the valence shell is not full. At
this point, the reactivity of the atom is high in order to react with other
atoms and bond with them to create a full valence shell, deeming the atom

iii.Electrons in valence shell of these atoms to be stable



Reference 59

?Chemistry strand-Part 2

?Chemical Bonding

?Chemical Bonding

?There are two types of chemical bonds, ionic and
covalent. The difference between ionic and covalent bonds is the type of atoms
that are bonded together. Covalent bonds are made between two non-metal atoms.
Ionic bongs are bonds between a non-metal and a metal.

?The bonds in a water molecule are covalent because
hydrogen and oxygen are both non-metals.


?Chemistry Strand-Part 3

?Chemical Reactions

?Chemical change

a)Five pieces of Evidence in a Chemical Change (CHGLP)

1.C-Colour change

2.H-Heat produced/absorbed

3.G-Gas produced

4.L-Light produced

5.P-Precipitate produced


?Equations of Water

?Equations of Water

  The evidence that this is a chemical change is light
production. When creating water by using hydrogen and oxygen, you will need a
small  form of energy to bond the atoms.
Hydrogen is extremely flammable and oxygen is explosive, a spark of heat will
bond the atoms. The resulting evidence is a loud bang and a bright light
produced. We know that light production is one of the five pieces of chemical
change so we can effectively label this experiment to have a chemical change. ( Reference 61,62)

?Chemistry Strand-Part 4

?Hydrogen Fuel Cells

?Hydrogen Fuel Cells

?A hydrogen fuel cell is able to harness the energy from
the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen for motor vehicles by chemically fusing
together the particles . This power releases heat, water and energy. The current energy flows through an
electric motor, to power the car.

? Hydrogen can be extracted from fossil fuels or it can
be produced by separation of  water
molecules called electrolysis
. Both of these processes use energy to get hydrogen.

?Hydrogen fuel cell cars are viewed equal to electric car
because neither of  them produce
emissions or pollution through the tailpipe. They can also both run on
renewable resources, (battery operated can run on wind or solar power,)  which makes them more efficient.  However both of them can produce other
emissions  in the ways the generate the
electricity, making them viewed as equals. 

?If I had to choose between hydrogen and electric for a
city, I would chose an electric car because cities are very populated and there
are not many places that sell hydrogen as a source, which is extremely
expensive . Electric cars,
will have many great priced charging places in a city so they will be easier to
find and cheaper.  These two reasons make
a electric car more favorable to me.

?(References 63-66)





Reference 17http://www.wwf.ca/conservation/species/monarch_butterfly/


Reference 19 http://www.psu.edu/dept/nkbiology/naturetrail/speciespages/cricket.htm

Reference 20https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_birds_of_Ontario

Reference 21https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Red-tailed_Hawk/lifehistory

Reference 22https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Red-tailed_Hawk/lifehistory#at_habitat


Reference 24http://www.birdweb.org/birdweb/bird/spruce_grouse

Reference 25www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Spruce_Grouse/lifehistory#at_food

Reference 26http://www.audubon.org/field-guide/bird/spruce-grouse

Reference 27http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/birds/ruffedgrouse.html

Reference 28https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Black-capped_Chickadee/lifehistory#at_nesting

Reference 29https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garter_snake#Venom

Reference 30https://www3.northern.edu/natsource/REPTILES/Garter1.htm

Reference 31http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/coyote/




Reference 32https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coyote#Behavior

Reference 33https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_coyote

Reference 34https://predatordefense.org/coyotes.htm

Reference 35https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White-tailed_deer#Taxonomy

Reference 36http://www.naturalresources.msstate.edu/wildlife/white-tailed-deer.asp

Reference 37https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/w/white-tailed-deer/

Reference 38https://animalcorner.co.uk/animals/worms/

Reference39 https://kids.nationalgeographic.com/animals/earthworm/#earthworm_1_closeup.jpg

Reference 40 https://blog.nationalgeographic.org/2014/03/19/the-urban-water-cycle-sustaining-our-modern-cities/

Reference 41


Reference 42

Textbook Nelson Eduaction Science Perspectives 9, chapter 3.4 Pages

Reference 43http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/dccircuits/dcp_1.html

Reference 44- Science Electricity Notes in class

Reference 45 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fleming%27s_left-hand_rule_for_motors

Reference 46 http://www.explainthatstuff.com/electricmotors.html

Reference 47



Reference 48 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric-vehicle_battery

Reference 49 http://fusionforenergy.europa.eu/understandingfusion/

Reference 50  https://energy.gov/eere/electricvehicles/reducing-pollution-electric-vehicles

Reference 51  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-renewable_resource

Reference 52https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automotive_battery

Reference 53https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusion_power

Reference 54 http://fusionforenergy.europa.eu/understandingfusion/


Reference 56http://www.solarcity.com/residential/how-does-solar-power-work
 Reference 57 https://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/our-energy-choices/renewable-energy/how-hydroelectric-energy.html#.WlkkfzdJncs

Reference 58https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_power

Reference 59-Science Chemistry notes in class

Reference 60


Reference 61


Reference 62


Reference 63https://futureofworking.com/10-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-hydrogen-fuel-cells/

Reference 64www.ucsusa.org/clean-vehicles/electric-vehicles/how-do-battery-electric-cars-work

Reference 65https://auto.howstuffworks.com/electric-cars-vs-hydrogen-fuel-cell-cars.htm

Reference 66http://sepuplhs.org/high/hydrogen/hydrogen.html

?Images References

Reference 1


Reference 2

Ohio Trees – Black Walnut.

Reference 3


Reference 4


Reference 5

Got Milkweed? Updated Plant Guide for Central and South Texas

Reference 6


Reference 7


Reference 8


Reference 9

Boxelder bugs

Reference 10

Why I love the Monarch Butterfly

Reference 11


?Images References

Reference 12

Spruce Grouse female

Reference 13


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?Images References

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Reference 30

Caution, Wildlife Corridor Ahead!

Reference 31

Bear hair study in Banff proves animal highway crossings work

Reference  32

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