Synthetic Plastic is the most dominant materialshave become an integral part of daily life because of It is widely used inelectronics, agriculture, medical and packaging matrials. Plastic is a nonbiodegrdable products owing to their durability and resistance to degradationled to accumulate in the environment (Prieto, 2016) at a rate of 25 milliontonnes per year (Evans and Furlong,2003). Owing to increasing the production andconsumption of synthetic plastic has raised a major concern like the safedisposal, solid waste management and the potential to affect the human healthas well as cause great harm to the environment (Thompson, 2009). The physical andchemical methods for habitat cleanup also have many limitations with depletionof fossil based petroleum reserves. Hence these all problems have created muchinterest in the development of biodegradable plastics as a potentialalternative to the traditional plastics (Muhammadi et al, 2015). Biopolymer isnaturally formed, polymeric materials produced by all the living organisms.
(GhanbarzadehAlmasi, 2013). It constitutes a significant part of biologicalcomponents. In this way it is clear that the carbon compound in the biopolymermaterial is not from fossil origin (Technology Watch: Biopolymers, 2015). Biopolymershave been widely used since the ancient time. These materials such as Leather,natural rubber, wool, cotton and cork are still popular and specificapplications in market.
The most abundant and common biopolymer is Cellulosewhich constitutes of 33% of all plant component on Earth (Biopolymer, 2018). Mostlybiopolymers are bio-degradable with the action of micro-organisms. Thedevelopment of bio bussed polymer being biodegradable, biocompatible,renewable, easily processed and ecofriendly. Hence, their various applicationsrange from being used in the packaging industry, agriculture, chemical industryand medicine. The main brands of the bioplastic in the market are: Biopol,Bionolle, Nature Works and Mater-Bi. Considering these all facts, large scaleproduction of these biodegradable polymers and their extensive use is criticalboth to ensure offer an alternative sources of plastic and also for theenvironment considered to be a potential solution (Zinn et al, 2001).
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), polylactides,aliphatic polyesters, polysaccharides, and the copolymers and/ blends or ofthese (Kalia,2016). Thepolyhydroxyalkanoates to the group of polyoxoesters and due to itsthermoplastic properties it is gaining interest as a substitute forpetroplastics (Albuquerqueet al., 2007). Thepolyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are polyesters belong to various hydroxyalkanoatesthat are the bioplastics completely synthesized by microorganisms (Zinn et al.,2001). A number of bacteria including Alcaligenes eutrophus,Alcaligenes latus, Azotobacter vinelandii, methylotrophs, pseudomonads, andrecombinant Escherichia coli have been employed for the production of PHAs (Lee, 1996).