Table from dispersed unified architectures to incorporated architectures. In

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Last updated: November 21, 2019

            Table of Contents  Page number The topic 1 Cover Page   2 Table of Contents   3 1.      Introduction   3 2.

      Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) concept in aircraft applications   4 3.      Basic operation of Fuel Management system   5 4.      Fuel Management system in the Lear jet 45 aircraft   6 5.

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      Procedure of operational test of Fuel Management system   8 6.      Abnormal scenarios related to Fuel Management system, their warning/caution indication in the cockpit along with the remedial action   9 7. Conclusion   10 8. References              1.    Introduction The IMA concept was introdu­ced by some of the main avionicssuppliers in the 1990s and initially applied to fighters and business/regionaljets. The firstcommercial aircrafts to utilize IMA technology was the Boeing 777 with itsAirplane Information Management System (AIMS).

The AIMS is the base of theBoeing 777 and it consolidates essential navigation display, flight display,EICAS display, flight planning, performance management, navigation, airplaneand engine observing, digital flight information obtaining, communications management,and information transformation gateway functionalities into a singlecoordinated system (Aleksa and Carter, 1997). Military aircrafts, for example,the F-22 Raptor, F-35 and Dassault Rafale has likewise received the concept ofIMA. The Rafale utilizes a Modular Data Processing Unit (MDPU). This design hasflight management system, information combination, man-machine interfaces, firecontrol, and so forth. The most up to date extends from Boeing, the 787Dreamliner, and from Airbus, the A380, are exploiting IMA also.                                                                                                                          Additionally, the two greatest space agencies of the world,National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency(ESA) are analyzing the concept of IMA.                                                                                                               2.    Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) concept in aircraft applications The concept of integrated modular avionics (IMA) created because ofthe great development in the electronics industry, raised functional complexityin the avionics systems and require for smart modular and integrated systems.

The integrated modular avionics concept came in mid-90s because of greatinvestments made by the airline industries on more integratedplatforms. Also, the developing demand for products and services withprerequisites more complex, joined with the offer of ability of computation andcommunication at costs progressively littler, are stimulating industries asspace, automotive and aeronautics ones to move from dispersed unified architecturesto incorporated architectures. In view of that, the concept of IMA was created.The focal perfect of IMA is the sharing of hardware; that is, numerousapplications having a similar operating unit. Hence, it is conceivable to decreasethe cost with processors, wiring, I/O, and so on. Other than that, other basicgoals of the aeronautics and space industries are fulfilled, for example,decrease of size, weight, energy utilization and cost.

                                                                                               Figure 1: IntegratedModular Avionics(IMA) system Integration process  3.    Basic operation of Fuel Management system  A fuelmanagement system (FMS) makes forecasts about fuel remaining at each waypointalong the route, and helps screen real fuel utilize as your flight advances.A fuelmanagement system can assist to make the fuel calculations required forin-flight decisions about potential routing, fuel stops, and redirections. Afuel management system offers the positive side of exact fuel calculations withregard to time, distance, winds, and fuel stream measured by other aircraftsystems. At the point when a route has been customized into the FMS, the fuelmanagement function is able for showing at present accessible fuel and aircraftcontinuance and giving a gauge of fuel remaining as the aircraft crosses each waypointin the programmed route.

As a fuel management function is helpful for making essentialfuel calculations, it as well as is helpful for drafting calculations performedby the pilot. In the event that there are spills, plumbing breakdowns, or insufficientleaning, the display of fuel can be deceptive. You should dependably land atthe earliest gauge indication of low fuel in the tanks, time of normal landing,or any sign of fuel value disagreement with the flight planning. Errors can be determinedwhen the aircraft is safely on the ground. 3.1  Fuel management system or function An advanced avionicssystem that helps the pilot in managing fuel by considering fuel stream,airspeed, and winds to assist foresee fuel remaining at each waypoint along thecustomized route, total continuance, and the reasonability of alternativeroutings or diversions. Stand-alone systems may coordinate the yield data intothe FMS/RNAV (an area navigation)  or givea careful display, while the fuel management function is a fundamental part ofthe FMS/RNAV system. In either example, the fuel data management objectives arethe same.

IntegratedAvionics SystemsSome systemsintegrate FMS/RNAV controls and display into available cockpit displays mostly knownas Primary flight displays (PFDs) and PFDs and multi-function displays (MFDs).Inthis case, there is no separate display to point to and call the RNAV display.   Figure 2: Aircraft fuel managementsystem  4.    Fuel Management system in the Lear jet 45 aircraft  The Learjet 45 has the directoperation costs of a light jet, similar to a Cessna ReferenceII (about $1,800 an hour); flies considerablemeasure higher (51,000 ft.), farther (2,032nautical miles with 4% and IFR saves)and faster (534 m/h); and has a more agreeable cabin (410 ft3).

Payload with full fuel is a respectable1,600 pounds, and up to 500 pounds of stuff can be split amongst nose and towardthe back compartments. Indeed, the Learjet 45 is more similar to a mediumsize cabin jet. In short, it conveys the comfort and performance of an airplane thatcosts millions and more for that, most operators are willing to ignore a little inconvenience every once in a while.

                                                                                                                              In 1989 the work on the airplane started as a substitutionto the wildly well-known Learjet 35 series. The Model 45 was aclean-sheet-of-paper design that influenced broad utilization of client focus group data, computer modeling and lean manufacturingdesign. The roomy of aircraft, flat-floor cabin was outlined first, and afterward the rest airplane was built around it.                                                                     The designers furnished the frontoffice with the most cutting-edge avionics of the day.

The system is workedaround Honeywell’s Primus 1000. All navigationinformation and flight are shown onfour big screens that join engineinstrument and crew alerting system data. The system permits support crews to download diagnostic information straightforwardlyto laptops, significantly speeding investigating of the avionics and engines.                                                                                                         Figure 3: FuelManagement system in the Lear jet 45 aircraft  5.    Procedure of operational test of Fuel Management system  5.1 InitialFuel EstimateMany fuel management systems do not have a fuel quantity sensor.Without access to this raw data of fuel quantity, fuel management systemsperform calculations utilizing a primarily fuel evaluate that was given by thepilot before to flight.                               It is essential tomake exact assessments of introductory fuel because the fuel management work utilizesthis gauge in making expectations about fuel levels at future times during theflight.

For instance, if in the case that you overestimate the initial fuel by8gallons and plan to arrive with 7 gallons of fuel of reserve, you may notes usualfuel signs from the fuel management system, yet experience fuel exhaustion beforethe finish of the flight.                                                                                                           5.2 EstimatingAmount of Fuel on BoardAs the fuel management function’s forecasts are frequently in viewof the initial amount entered, so it is important to screen the fuel gauges to guaranteeagreement with the fuel management capacity of the FMS as the flightprogresses. It is almost utilize to use the most moderate of these measures whileassessing fuel on board.                                                                                                                               5.3 PredictingFuel at a Later Point in the FlightAn essential function of the fuel management system is to enable youto forecast fuel remaining for a future in the flight. The fuel managementsystem utilizes a mix of the recently accessible fuel and the recent ate offuel utilization to reach at the measures. Some units need the current or assessedfuel consume rate to be entered.

Other units have optional sensors for fuelflow and/or amount. Be absolutely aware of which equipment is introduced inyour particular aircraft and how to utilize it. As the rate of fuel utilizationinstantly changes while power or mixture is modified, the fuel management systemshould constant lyre fresh its expectations .It is normal for the fuelmanagement system to compute fuel remaining at the landing of the dynamic waypoint,and the last waypoint in the route programmed into the FMS/RNAV.            5.4 DeterminingEnduranceMost fuel management systems show the quantity of fuel remaining, additionallythe perseverance of the aircraft given the present fuel flow. Many systems displaythe aircraft perseverance in minutes and hours.

                                                                     5.5 General Safety Practices that need to be observed duringmaintenance  1. Airport Authorities need more deliberate way to deal with and reviewpractices to guarantee all parts of turnaround methodology are consistentlysurveyed, non-compliances recognized, remedial actions determined and suggestionslegitimately applied.                                                    2. Airlines require a systematic way to dealwith and observing their contractors.3. Management Control (implements to all parties related with a turnaround):A basic part of any safety management system is the control, observing and feedbacksystem.

Consistent safety checks/reviews must be performed to guarantee understandingand comprehension and consistence with standards and working systems.4. Recording Spill Incidents: standard spill incident report was notaccessible as direction or to utilize. Subsequently, every airport authority orfire service has built up their own format. For any future examinationincluding fuel spills, importance should be given for building a standardformat. A basic check list approach could be embraced. 5.

Time Period for Keeping Spill Records: A fixed period must be putinto consideration for which the Airport Authority and/or the Fire Serviceshould to hold fuel spill reports. The period of maintenance seems to change from oneairport to another.6.

Organizationsrefer some duty regarding safety andhealth when practices conducted by contractors on their interest. Depending on standard conditionsrequiringthe contractor to agree with relatedhealth and safety rules is probablynot to be sufficient. Customers should find away to survey, monitor and control and co-ordinate the work that the parties do for their sake.                                                                                                               6.    Abnormal scenarios related to Fuel Management system, theirwarning/caution indication in the cockpit along with the remedial action The microbiologicalcontamination is the major abnormal scenario occur in fuel management system,below the explanation of this issue  Microbiological contamination of fuels can prompt issues inoperation such as metallic structures corrosion, problems in fuel quantityindication, and the scavenge systems and fuel filters blocking during flight.

There are a different signs that help to determine that fuel tanks arecontaminated e.g., fuel filters contamination evidence, sump samplediscoloration, fuel injectors blocking, and inaccurate/erratic fuel levelreadings. The erratic event of the fuel amount gauging system is an indication ofmicrobial contamination, as most gauging systems are capacitance-based and themicrobes have many capacitances than fuel. In all cases, this list is not comprehensiveand it is conceivable that a contaminated fuel tank will show none of these indications.Microbes like yeast, fungi and bacteria can cause microbiological contaminationof light to center distillate fuels. These organisms are available in theenvironment and hence can simply access the fuel supply system.

The microbialgrowth lives in water and feeds on the hydrocarbons in fuel.6.1  Remedial action The remediationaction regarding the biological contamination are mentioned here:1-  Fuel System Drainage Fuelsystem drainage is utilized to take out water from the fuel tank, do a checkfor fuel contamination, perform a check for accumulation of ice,  take a sample of fuel for detecting microbialgrowth, – perform a check of the water scavenge system, withdraw fuel to removefuel from a tank,  withdraw fuel from thesurge tanks to other the overload protection system, It is advised to drain thewater from all fuel tank sump drain every day.                                                                           2- Aircraft Fuel Tank Sumping Procedure: a)If the ambient temperatureis under 0°C, notes that the cold climate maintenance is taken. Note: Supplyhot air before you withdraw the sumps to ensure the fuel withdraws freely. b) Allowthe water to move to the base of the tank before you open the sump withdraw valve.Wait as much as possible period of time after settling before you sump the fueltank. Water will move vertically with rate of one foot/hour.

c) Sump all fueltanks: keep the upper end of an accepted sump withdraw tool opposite to thesump drain poppet, keep the container under the sump withdraw valve,  push the sump withdraw tool up until the liquidmaterial flows toward the container until it become full. Note: In the casethat you cannot open the sump withdraw valve or liquid material does not withdrawfrom the valve, water around the valve or in the valve can transform into ice.So, perform the applicable cold weather maintenance (AMM).  Withdraw the sump until all of the point whenthe majority of the free water is evacuated. Note: It might be important to withdrawup to five gallons of fuel before water is determined. If the water in the fuelsampler has a brown color, contains particles, or has foul smell, at that case doa determination test for microbial contamination in relation with IATA procedurefor microbial contamination.                                                                                                  3- Biocide Treatment Biocide is a wide range antimicrobial agent intendedto prevent the growth of microorganisms in fuel tanks.

The process needs abiocide to be mixed at a particular concentration with fuel and permitted tosoak for some time. After soaking, the biocide dosed fuel is burned through theengine. Biocides should be dissolvable in fuel, but as well as partition intoany free water that is available in the tank.

These factors as the contact time,a biocide concentration, and exposure temperature detects the a biocideefficiency. At high concentrations biocide kill microbes, at lowerconcentration stop their growth and can often feed them at very lowconcentration.                                                                                                                  7. Conclusion This case studyprovide an overview on Integrated Avionics System (IAS) in terms of itsoperation, advantages, fuel management system, the abnormal events in fuelmanagement system and safety measures that should be taken and put inconfederation during maintenance.

The IntegratedAvionics System is a result of modern industry and advancement. The fuel systemof aircraft is an important system and it plays a major role on storage,managing and supplying the fuel to the engine of aircraft.                                                                                                                                     8. References -Aleksa, B.

D., and Carter, J.P.( 1997). Boeing 777 Airplane InformationManagement System Operational Experience, IEEE.

-Alena, R.L., Goforth, A.

, Figueroa, F., Ossenfort, J., and Laws, K.I.( 2007).Communication for Integrate Modular Avionics, IEEE Aerospace Conference.

– TheMcGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.( 2003 ). Fuel system. Encyclopedia- The Free Dictionary                                               – Fewtrell, P.

, Petrie,A., Lines, I., Cowell, N.

, Livingston, A., and Jones, C.(2000). Quantified Risk Assessment of AircraftFuelling Operations – HUBER, M.

(2007). learjet-45-45xr COTSJournal. U.S.

Department of Transportation FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATIONFlightStandards Service. (2009). Advanced Avionics Handbook – Nikolina, C. (2013).

FuelManual. CROATIA AIRLINES. Microsoft Word – OP-PSU-050_5_Fuel Manual.doc 

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