Test Preparation: Campbell Biology

Topics: Environment

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Last updated: August 15, 2019

Chapter 31: Fungi

Though fungal divisions have traditionally been based on modes of sexual reproduction, molecular considerations are becoming more important. Consequently, no emphasis has been placed on the vagaries of sexual and asexual reproduction among various fungi in this Test Bank. Instead, new questions assess students’ abilities to think logically about fungal morphology, genetics, and ecology.Two new sets of scenario questions deal with the biology of microsporidians and chytrids, ungi thought to play a substantial role in the worldwide decline of many amphibians.If you need assistance with a paper or task on a different biological subject, do not hesitate to contact our team from Ascendnaamba.

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Multiple-Choice Questions

1) The hydrolytic digestion of which of the following should produce monomers that are aminated (i. e. , have an amine group attached) molecules of ??-glucose?A) insect exoskeleton;B) plant cell walls;C) fungal cell walls;D) Three of these responses are correct.E) Two of these responses are correct.Answer: E.

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Topic: Concept 31.

Skill: Knowledge/Comprehension

2) If all fungi in an environment that perform decomposition were to suddenly die, then which group of organisms should benefit most, due to the fact that their fungal ompetitors have been removed?A) plants;B) protists;C) prokaryotes;D) animals;E) mutualistic fungi.Answer: C.

Skill: Application/Analysis

3) When a mycelium infiltrates an unexploited source of dead organic matter, what are most likely to appear within the food source soon thereafter?A) fungal haustoria;B) soredia;C) fungal enzymes;D) increased oxygen levels.4) Which of the following is a characteristic of hyphate fungi (fungi featuring hyphae)?A) They acquire their nutrients by phagocytosis.B) Their body plan is a unicellular sphere.C) Their cell walls consist mainly of cellulose microfibrils.

D) They are adapted for rapid directional growth to new food sources.E) They reproduce asexually by a process known as budding.Answer: D.5) The functional significance of porous septa in certain fungal hyphae is most similar to that represented by which pair of structures in animal cells and plant cells, respectively?A) desmosomesotonoplasts;B) gap Junctionsoplasmodesmata;C) tight Junctionsoplastids;D) centriolesoplastids;E) flagellaocentral vacuoles.Answer: B.6) What do fungi and arthropods have in common?A) Both groups are commonly coenocytic.B) The haploid state is dominant in both groups.C) Both groups are predominantly heterotrophs that ingest their food.

D) The protective coats of both groups are made of chitin.E) Both groups have cell walls.7) In septate fungi, what structures allow cytoplasmic streaming to distribute needed nutrients, synthesized compounds, and organelles throughout the hyphae?A) multiple chitinous layers in cross-walls;B) pores in cross-walls;C) complex microtubular cytoskeletons;D) two nuclei;E) tight Junctions that form in cross-walls between cells rapid distribution of synthesized proteins by cytoplasmic streaming;F) a long tubular body shape;G) the readily available nutrients from their ingestive mode of nutrition;H) a dikaryotic condition that supplies greater amounts of proteins and nutrients.Answer: A.

9) The vegetative (nutritionally active) bodies of most fungi are?A) composed of hyphae.B) referred to as a mycelium.C) usually underground.10) Both fungus-farming ants and their fungi can synthesize the same structural polysaccharide from the ??-glucose. What is this polysaccharide?A) amylopectin;B) chitin;C) cellulose;D) lignin;E) glycogen.11) Consider two hyphae having equal dimensions: one from a septate species and the other from a coenocytic species.

Compared with the septate species, the coenocytic species should haveA) fewer nuclei.B) more pores.C) less chitin.D) less cytoplasm.E) reduced cytoplasmic streaming.12) Immediately after karyogamy occurs, which term applies?A) plasmogamy;B) heterokaryotic;C) dikaryotic;D) diploid.13) Which description does not apply equally well to both sexual and asexual spores?A) have haploid nuclei;B) represent the dispersal stage;C) are produced by meiosis;D) upon germination, will subsequently undergo S phase and mitosis.Answer: C.

Topic: Concept 31. 2

14) Plasmogamy can directly result in which of the following? 1 . haploid nucleus 2.

heterokaryotic cells 3. dikaryotic cells 4. ells with two diploid nuclei.

A) 1 or 2.B) 1 or 3.E) 3 or 4 cells with a single.

15) After cytokinesis occurs in budding yeasts, the daughter cell has a:A) smaller nucleus and more cytoplasm than the mother cell.B) smaller nucleus and less cytoplasm than the mother cell.C) larger nucleus and less cytoplasm than the mother cell.D) similar nucleus and less cytoplasm than the mother cell.16) In most fungi, karyogamy does not immediately follow plasmogamy, which consequently:A) means that sexual reproduction can occur in specialized structures.

B) results in multiple diploid nuclei per cell.C) allows fungi to reproduce asexually most of the time.D) results in heterokaryotic or dikaryotic cells.E) is strong support for the claim that fungi are not truly eukaryotic.Answer: D.17) If all of their nuclei are equally active transcriptionally, then the cells of both dikaryotic and heterokaryotic fungi, in terms of the gene products they can make, are essentially:A) haploid.B) diploid.D) completely homozygous.

E) completely hemizygous.18) Which process occurs in fungi and has the opposite effect on a cell’s chromosome number than does meiosis l?A) mitosis;B) plasmogamy;C) crossing over;D) binary fission;E) karyogamy.19) Which of the following statements is true of deuteromycetes?A) They are the second of five fungal phyla to have evolved.

B) They represent the phylum in which all the fungal components of lichens are classified.C) They are the group of fungi that have, at present, no known sexual stage.D) They are the group that includes molds, yeasts, and lichens.

E) They include the imperfect fungi that lack hyphae.20) Fossil fungi date back to the origin and early evolution of plants. What combination of environmental and morphological change is similar in the evolution f both fungi and plants?A) presence of “coal forests” and change in mode of nutritionB) periods of drought and presence of filamentous body shapeC) predominance in swamps and presence of cellulose in cell wallsD) colonization of land and loss of flagellated cellsE) continental drift and mode of spore dispersal

Topic: Concept 31.

3

21) Which of the following characteristics is shared by both chytrids and other kinds of fungi?A) presence of flagella;B) zoospores;C) autotrophic mode of nutrition;D) cell walls of cellulose;E) nucleotide sequences of several genes common ancestry.22)B) by convergent evolution.C) by inheritance of acquired traits.D) by natural means, and is a homology.E) by serial endosymbioses.23) Asexual reproduction in yeasts occurs by budding. Due to unequal cytokinesis, the “bud” cell receives less cytoplasm than the parent cell. Which of the following should be true of the smaller cell until it reaches the size of the larger cell?A) It should produce fewer fermentation products per unit time.

B) It should produce ribosomal RNA at a slower rate.C) It should be transcriptionally less active.D) It should have reduced motility.E) It should have a smaller nucleus.

Answer: A.24) The microsporidian, Brachiola gambiae, parasitizes the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Adult female mosquitoes must take blood meals in order for their eggs to develop, and it is while they take blood that they transmit malarial parasites to humans. Male mosquitoes drink flower nectar.If humans are to safely and effectively use Brachiola gambiae as a biological control to reduce human deaths from malaria, then how many of the following statements should be true?1 . Brachiola should kill the mosquitoes before the malarial parasite they carry reaches maturity.2. The icrosporidian should not be harmful to other insects.

3. Microsporidians should infect mosquito larvae, rather than mosquito adults.4. The subsequent decline in anopheline mosquitoes should not significantly disrupt human food resources or other food webs.5. Brachiola must be harmful to male mosquitoes, but not to female mosquitoes.A) one statement only;B) two statements;C) three statements;D) four statements;E) all five statements.

Skill: Synthesis/Evaluation

25) Many infected animals are induced by the parasitic microsporidians to develop huge cells, known as xenomas, which are full of spores.

Given their large size, what should be true of the xenomas?A) The parasite must endow the xenoma with some obtain mitochondria to survive.C) The xenoma must gain a cell wall; otherwise, it will lyse.D) The xenoma acts as a prison, of sorts, to keep the spores from escaping and infecting other organisms.

Topic: Concepts 31. 30

26) What are the sporangia of the bread mold Rhizopus?A) asexual structures that produce haploid spores;B) asexual structures that produce diploid spores;C) sexual structures that produce haploid spores;D) sexual structures that produce diploid spores.

Topic: Concept 31.

27) Which of these paired fungal structures are structurally and functionally most alike?A) conidia and basidiocarps;B) sporangia and hyphae;C) soredia and gills;D) haustoria and arbuscules;E) zoospores and mycelia.28) You are given an organism to identify. It has a fruiting body that contains many structures with eight haploid spores lined up in a row. What kind of a fungus is this?A) zygomycete;B) ascomycete;C) deuteromycete;D) chytrid;E) basidiomycete.29) Which of the following has the least affiliation with all of the others?A) Glomeromycota;B) mycorrhizae;C) lichens;D) arbuscules.

30) Arrange the following from largest to smallest:1. ascospore;2. ascocarp;3. ascomycete;4. ascus.31) Arrange the following from largest to smallest, assuming that they all come from the same fungus.

1. asidiocarp;2. basidium;3. basidiospore;4. mycelium;5.

gill.32) Among sac fungi, which of these correctly distinguishes ascospores from conidia?A) Ascospores are diploid, whereas conidia are haploid.B) Ascospores are produced only by meiosis, whereas conidia are produced only by mitosis.C) Ascospores have undergone genetic recombination during their production, whereas conidia have not.

D) Ascospores are larger, whereas conidia are smaller.E) Ascospores will germinate into haploid hyphae, whereas conidia will germinate into diploid hyphae.Answer: C33) A fungal spore germinates, giving rise to a mycelium that grows outward into the soil surrounding the site where the spore originally landed.

Which of the following accounts for the fungal movement, as described here?A) karyogamy;B) mycelial flagella;C) breezes distributing spores;D) cytoplasmic streaming in hyphae.34) In what structures do both Penicillium and Aspergillus produce asexual spores?A) asciB) zygosporangia;C) rhizoids;D) gametangia;E) conidiophores.35) Chemicals, secreted by soil fungi, that inhibit the growth of bacteria are known as:A) antibodies.B) aflatoxins.C) hallucinogens.D) antigens.

E) antibiotics.

Topic: Concept 31. 5

36) Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi and:A) mosses.B) cyanobacteria.C) green algae.37) In both lichens and mycorrhizae, what does the fungal partner provide to its photosynthetic partner?A) carbohydrates;B) fixed nitrogen;C) antibiotics;D) water and minerals.

38) protection from harmful UV involved in lichens?A) Fungal cells are enclosed within algal cells.B) Lichen cells are enclosed within fungal cells.C) Photosynthetic cells are surrounded by fungal hyphae.D) The fungi grow on rocks and trees and are covered by algae.E) Algal cells and fungal cells mix together without any apparent structure.Answer: C.

39) If haustoria from the fungal partner were to appear within the photosynthetic partner of a lichen, and if the growth rate of the photosynthetic partner consequently slowed substantially, then this would support the claim that:A) algae and cyanobacteria are autotrophic.B) lichens are not purely mutualistic relationships.C) algae require maximal contact with the fungal partner in order to grow at optimal ates.D) fungi get all of the nutrition they need via the “leakiness” of photosynthetic partners.

E) soredia are asexual reproductive structures combining both the fungal and photosynthetic partners.Answer: B.40) When pathogenic fungi are found growing on the roots of grape vines, grape farmers sometimes respond by covering the ground around their vines with plastic sheeting and pumping a gaseous fungicide into the soil.

The most important concern of grape farmers who engage in this practice should be that the:A) fungicide might also kill the native yeasts residing on the surfaces of the grapes.B) lichens growing n the vines’ branches are not harmed.C) fungicide might also kill mycorrhizae.D) sheeting is transparent so that photosynthesis can continue.Answer: C.41) Which of the following terms refers to symbiotic relationships that involve fungi living between the cells in plant leaves?A) pathogens;B) endosymbioses;C) endophytes;D) lichens;E) mycorrhizae.42) If Penicillium typically secretes penicillin without disturbing the lichen relationship in which it is engaged, then what must have been true about its partner?A) It should have lacked peptidoglycan in its cell wall.B) It was probably a red alga.

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