Type: Classification Essays
Sample donated: Maria Black
Last updated: April 25, 2019
The ABO and Rh blood groups are among the most important blood groups.The ABO blood group system is widely credited to have been discovered by the Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner, who identified the O, A, and B blood types in 1900.1Even after 100 years, this system is still in use for blood transfusion and in blood banking services to avoid morbidity and mortality2. He discovered three blood groups (A, B & O) for which he was awarded Nobel prize in 1930. Fourth blood group, AB was discovered by Alfred Von Decastello and Adriano Sturli in 1902.3Blood grouping is the classification of blood based on the presence or absence of two inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).
The ABO and Rh are the major, clinically significant and the most important of all the blood group systems.. The human ABO blood group system is divided into the following four major groups depending on the antigen present on the surface of their red blood cells: 1.
A group 2. B group 3. AB group 4. O group The associated Anti A and Anti B antibodies usually belong to IgM class of immunoglobulins. A total of 35 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).4 The two most important ones are ABO and the RhD antigen; they determine someone’s blood type (A, B, AB and O, with +, ? or Null denoting RhD status)A complete blood type would describe a full set of 30 substances on the surface of RBCs, and an individual’s blood type is one of many possible combinations of blood-group antigens.5Across the 35 blood groups, over 600 different blood-group antigens have been found.
6Almost always, an individual has the same blood group for life, but very rarely an individual’s blood type changes through addition or suppression of an antigen in infection, malignancy, or autoimmune disease7. Another more common cause in blood type change is a bone marrow transplant. Bone-marrow transplants are performed for many leukemias and lymphomas, among other diseases. If a person receives bone marrow from someone who is a different ABO type (e.
g., a type A patient receives a type O bone marrow), the patient’s blood type will eventually convert to the donor’s type.Another clinically important blood group system in humans is the Rhesus system (Rh-system) which was discovered by Landsteiner and Wiener in 1941. The most immunogenic and clinically important antigen of the Rh system is D antigen encoded by the gene RHD located on chromosome 1 of humans. The two alleles of RHD are D and d where allele D is dominant over allele d. When the allele is D, the blood group will be Rh+ and when the allele is d, the blood group will be Rh-.
8The Rhesus system (Rh) is the second most important blood group system in humans. The most significantand immunogenic Rhesus antigen is the RhD antigen. The individuals carrying the Rh antigen are considered to have positive blood group whereas those individuals that lack this antigen are considered to have negative blood group. Blood grouping is of utmost importance in transfusion practices where it reduces the chances of morbidity and mortality. It is also of help in studying population genetics, in evaluating probability of hemolytic diseases in newborns, in resolving the disputes of paternity and maternity, providing reliable geographical information and in forensic studies.9Blood is the most essential body fluid, which is responsible for the transportation of oxygen, as well as the circulation of various important nutrients, enzymes, and hormones. It also transports waste products. Blood is a mixture of two important parts: cells and plasma.
The heart pushes blood through the arteries, capillaries and veins to supply oxygen and essentials nutrients to each and every cell of the body. The human red blood cell contains various kinds of polysaccharide antigens, called agglutinogen. The antigenic substances are responsible for inducing a particular immune response which results in the production of antibodies. 10Utilization of blood is a regular necessity in a health care system.
Need of blood is an essential and unavoidable requisite in the medical and surgical departments. There should be a constant, reliable and cost-free source of blood in the blood bank, that is tested and safe for the recipients. There is also the hassle and expense in arranging such donations by non-local patients relatives so there should be an organized way to an easily accessible source of blood11 Medical students being a part of the hospitals can play an important role in blood bank reserves of blood in emergencies as well as whenever needed.
Medical students are quite motivated with a very positive attitude towards blood donation12 and this can prove to be a time efficient and relatively safer way of collecting blood in blood banks. The use of extensive history from donors and advanced serological and nucleic acid testing (NAT) assays has greatly reduced infection from several transfusion transmitted pathogens.13 Quality and safety standards of the blood bank are mandatory to reduce risk of transfusion infections.14 A huge number of blood donors are lost due to extensive screening and standard protocols and procedures ofblood donations in blood banks, necessitating the establishment of a healthy blood donor pool or source.15 Gender-wise distribution of ABO blood groups Students and young population is a big pool of healthy, voluntary blood donors and committed to further donation after further screening and serological tests as appropriated by the blood bank.16 Determination of frequencies of ABO blood groups for blood banking, organ transplant and genetic studies is important and has already been established.
17 Medical students make a pool of healthy voluntary blood donors in our country. They usually practice blood donation with an interval of eight weeks between donations at least, as per standard practice and guidelines.18 National Institute of Health and Medical Sciences(NIHMS)is a private sector Institute affiliated with Khyber Medical University Peshawar. Data was collected from a pool of 100 students studying in different Semesters of various discipline