The action, will result in an elevation in

onset of both types of diabetes can be diagnosed and monitored via OGTT (Oral
Glucose Tolerance Test) and HBA1c levels. The haemoglobin A1c test measures the
amount of glycosylated haemoglobin (haemoglobin bound to glucose) in the
patient’s blood and provides information about your average blood glucose
levels over the previous 2 to 3 months. When haemoglobin and glucose
bond, a coat of sugar forms on the haemoglobin. That coat gets thicker when
there’s more sugar in the blood. HbA1c tests measure how thick that coat has
been over the past 3 months, which is how long a red blood cell lives. People
who have diabetes or other conditions that increase their blood glucose levels
have more glycohaemoglobin (sugar bound to haemoglobin) than normal. HbA1c levels
over 6.5% are suggestive of diabetes. Blood glucose tends to bind itself to the
surface of red blood cells, and the average lifespan of red blood cells is
around 3-4 months, therefore the measuring of the number of red blood cells
with glucose attached to them gives an idea of the blood glucose levels over
the past 120 days. Recommended HbA1c readings fall within the reference range
of 6.5 to 7%. This implies that for every 100 red blood cells, 6-7 cells have
glucose attached to them. In labs, the VARIANT™ Haemoglobin Testing System is a
state-of-the-art contraption which provides automated diabetes monitoring, beta
thalassemia for hemoglobinopathy and sickle cell disease. HbA1c testing is most
commonly used to monitor diabetes, but the test alone is not indication enough
for the diagnosis of diabetes. HbA1c tests can only be used to diagnose
diabetes when coupled with OGTT and the fasting glucose test.

 OGTT tests the ability of the body’s cells to
absorb glucose after ingestion of a fixed amount of sugar. In normal
individuals, pancreatic insulin secretion maintains blood glucose within a
tight concentration range following an oral glucose load. Failure of insulin
secretion, or resistance to insulin action, will result in an elevation in
blood glucose. Depending on age, lifestyle and diet, the severity of diabetes
varies from person to person.  Glucose
concentrations vary with age in healthy individuals. The reference interval for
children is 3.3–5.6 mmol/L (60–100 mg/dL), which is similar to the adult
interval of 4.1–6.1 mmol/L (74–110 mg/dL) Before the OGTT test is performed,
the normal blood glucose level should be 5-6 mmol/L. However, normal prandial
blood glucose levels varies from individual to individual. The variation of the
average range of normal blood glucose levels are mostly affected by age. For
example, the normal fasting blood glucose range for premature babies and
new-borns are 1.67-3.33mmol/L and 2.78-4.44mmol/L.
Even new-borns that vary just a few days in age have an effect on the range of
average blood glucose levels as the range for new-borns under a day old or a
day old is 2.22-3.33mmol/L but for new-borns more than a day old the range is 2.78-4.44mmol/L.
The difference between average blood glucose of a child and adult is even more
pronounced. A child’s average blood glucose ranges from 3.33-5.55mmol/L, while
an adult’s is much higher at 3.89-5.83mmol/L. As a person ages, the body
becomes less efficient as storing glucose, so for the elderly, the normal range
is of blood glucose values is higher than an adult’s. Like new-borns, the
normal blood glucose range for the elderly is affected by age. For individuals
aged 60 and above, the normal blood glucose range is 4.44-6.38mmol/L, and
increases to 4.61-6.10mmol/L for those aged 70 and above. After consumption of
a glucose solution, the blood glucose is measured again after 2h. At 2h, the
normal postprandial blood glucose level should be under 7.8 for non-diabetic
adults. For individuals with impaired glucose tolerance, the postprandial blood
glucose level should not be more than 7.9-11mmol/L. For suffers of diabetes,
the usual postprandial blood glucose level should be more than 11.1mmol/L. There
are also different ranges for glucose found in urine. In a normal non-diabetic
person, no glucose should be detected in urine. But in the case of diabetic
individuals, glucose is present in the urine and therefore can be measured. For
a child or an infant, the range is higher at 3.33-4.44mmol/L, whereas it is
lower for adults at 2.22-3.89mmol/L. The values for glucose present in urine
also depends based on the type of urine collected and tested for the presence
and amount of glucose in it. For random urine, the values should be around 0.1-0.8mmol/L,
while for 24h urine, the glucose present in the urine should not exceed 2.8mmol/day.
OGTT is predominantly used to diagnose gestational diabetes, which is usually
done between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy. 

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