The Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Origin of the

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Last updated: April 12, 2019

Thecollection of protocols which supports communication within the network issimply known as Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Origin of the TCP/IP had become theboon to many organizations. It was not so easy that we are getting knowledge onTCP/IP today. Back in days TCP/IP was only made for the information transferringto US Department of Defense (DoD) with the name of Advanced Research ProjectsAgency (ARPA). “The DoD’s advanced research projects agency created thisancient network way back in 1957 in a cold war reaction to the soviet’slaunching Sputnik” (Cased, J.

, 2017). An academic research project which was fundedinvolving distanced network called packet switched network which later on is calledARPANET. Inthe early 1970s, the members of ARPA collected the data for exchanging withinthe same network. And in 1983 DISA (Defense Information Systems Agency) tookpower from the DARPA (Defense Advance Research Projects Agency) and deformationof ARPAnet and MILnet was done.

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With the suspension of ARPAnet and MILnet, theinformation over the internet and TCP/IP was made the available and knowledgetaking process or research along with U.S. colleges, the corporate; stakeholderwas carried for the betterment of Internet or network (Pyles, Carrell, &Tittel, 2016).In1973, protocol invented by Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn has gone various changesand finally a name is assigned which is called TCP/IP internet protocol suite,normally referred as TCP/TP.

This suite covers two distinct name which is webconvention (IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for the transmissionand delivering data. Although the work on TCP/IP began in the late 60s theinternet protocol version 4 (IPv4) was only made on late 70s same version thatwe using today.OSI model and its layer with the relationto TCP/IP Networking modelThemajor work of networking model is to describe how the computer communicateswith one another over a network. Networking model includes the standard sevenlayer model which is called network reference model simply reference model butnow popular as open system interconnection (OSI) model. It is the standard ofan International Organization for Standardization (ISO) so the standard modelis sometimes called as ISO/OSI network reference model. Whatever the name bethe basic job of the network model is to describe how a network works fromphysical level to application level. Although TCP/IP is theolder of two approaches of network model and it is accepted all over the world.

But OSI model of networking forms the guideline for all other communicationapplications. Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Linkand Physical layers are the seven layers of OSI model (Pyles, Carrell, &Tittel, 2016).1.Application layer: – It is the layer which provides a way for application how amessage is sent, it supports an application for the communication and filestransfer. Thus application layer defines the kinds of service that applicationcan request from the network and stipulates the data must take when accepting amessage.2.Presentation layer: – this layer manages the way of presentation of informationin the knowledgeable form.

Thus it translates data to a standard format, thislayer transform data from generic, network-oriented forms or unmanaged form toknown form or platform oriented form or vice-versa.3.Session layer: – this layer gives a way to permits senders and receiver torequest that conversation start or stop; it provides checkpoints to maintainthe reliable conversation.

“This layer also enables two applications on thedifferent computer to communicate over the network the phases involved in asession dialog are as follows establishment, data-transfer, and termination”(Pyles, Carrell, & Tittel, 2016).4.Transport layer: – current layer provides reliable end to end transmission of ProtocolData Units (PDUs), so correction of transmission and reception of data problemis handled for the internet by this layer. This layer breaks large packets intofragment for easy transmission packet completely.5.Network layer: – layer responsible for the translation of IP addresses into Macaddresses. It provides switching and routing for the data to be transfer toprocess the fast transaction.

This also maintains the connection of various IPaddress so that any application can be run at the same time.6.Data link layer: – This layer acts as an sandwich between bread of the softwarelayers and the hardware (physical) layer. It manages to point to pointtransmission across the networking medium. It transmits and checks the datareliability at receiving end (Pyles, Carrell, & Tittel, 2016).7.Physical layer: – This is a seen medium.

Its job is to maintain,activate/deactivate network connection it also manages communication with thenetwork medium going down the protocol stacks. It converts data into the streamof electric or analog pluses that will actually cross the transmission mediumand oversees the transmission of the data (Cased, 2017).Likethe OSI model TCP/IP networking model have only 4 layers, application,transport, internet, network access layer, but the working mechanism is same asof the OSI model.

Application, presentation and session layer of OSI modelcomprises of application layer in TCP/IP and data link and physical layers ofOSI model make network layer of TCP/IP.IP addressing schemes (Version 4and Version 6)Usuallythe IP address is a number given to the entire equipment works on computer networking.This also gives the address of that system. This unique identity is written asa string of numbers separated by periods.

An IP address is a logical addressnot a hardware address or MAC address hardware address is kept on the networkinterface card (NIC) and used for locating the machine on any network. The IPaddress is made to allow equipments to communicate on any network.   Most addresses are in IPv4 as it is widelyused till the date, but we also have IP address in IPv6 which are described lateronIPv4is a 32-bit address made up of only ones and zeros which we call as binarynumbers. Each part of this address is called an octet as it is composed of 8binary digits as 01000101.10001001.

00101101.11111010. To make the IP addresseasy they are written as four decimal numerical separated by periods which canbe assigned from 0 to 255, For example, IP address of my computer is69.137.45.

250. (Pyles, Carrell, & Tittel, 2016). All the address areassigned to five major classes and IP addresses are divided in two partsnetwork address and host address.1.Class A address: the first octet i.e. 8 bits only contains the network portionand rest of the host ID 2.Class B address: the first 2 octets i.

e. 16 bits only contains the networkportion and rest of the host ID3.Class C address: the first 3 octets i.e. 24 bits only contains the networkportion and rest of the host ID 4.And 5.

Class D address and Class E address is used as the multicast address andscientific purposes respectively.IPv4’s32-bit address mentions about 4 billion addresses but 4 billion are alreadyconsumed so new version called IPv6 is formed to provide more rooms of IPaddresses to upcoming market of the internet. (Cased, 2017)IPv6addresses are 128 bits long. It is expressed using eight blocks of fourhexadecimal digits. IPv6 uses a group of four 16-bit numbers called words andare separated by a colon           (Pyles, Carrell, & Tittel, 2016). IPv6 address of my computer is2601:14d:4300:3be9:977:f2df:ef46:a883.

There are many more addresses in IPv6that it can withstand the current and future needs of address to any demand.Literally, there is more address in IPv6 than the atoms on the surface of theearth.Reasons for the need for IP version6TheInternet is the fastest growing industry nowadays so the world is running out ofaddresses in IPv4. By the end of 2015, no any addresses are left behind.Although many of these 4 billion addresses are actually unused, they arealready allocated, so to withstand this problem IPv6 is evolved or made. Themajor reasons of the IPv6 are:-1.

More addresses than IPv4:- IPv4’s 32-bit address mentions about 4 billionaddresses, but IPv6’s 128-bit address accompanied by 2128 addresseswhich more than the atom of the surface in the earth. It also eliminates theneed for NAT2.It provides addresses auto-configuration, and better support to the anycastaddressing for the best and shortest route to reach the destination so helps invideo conference, live chat, etc3.

Ipv6 has greater flow labeling than the IPv4 so in minimal service of transmission.4.IPv6 is built on mobile IP and natively support mobility5.IPv6 supports network security by using authentication and encryption extensionheaders.AlthoughIPv6 is created in 1996 yet very few companies have implemented it completely,because of the long working history of IPv4, and lack of complete IPv6 systemin the market (Cased, 2017).Protocol analysisProtocolanalysis is the process of examining the procedure that is used to regulate thedata transmission between computers in any networks.

Protocol analysis dealswith gathering or decoding the data packets transferring from one device toanother device. The person who works in this field is called protocol analystand they should know how to utilize hardware and software tools to get thecorrect information through analysis (Protocol Analysis, 2017). The program or a device on whichprotocol analysis depends is known as protocol analyzer. The best-knownprotocol analyzer is Wireshark, which is free and available at www.wireshark.org.It is used for network troubleshooting, analysis, software and communicationprotocol development and education (Wireshark, 2017).

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