The fire, the passage of smoke through a building.

Topic: DesignConstruction Engineering
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Last updated: August 22, 2019

TheBCA (Building Code of Australia) consists of three volumes.VolumeIVolumeIIVolumeIII VolumeII consists of 3 sections.Section1Section2Section3 Section3 gives the required information on the Acceptable Construction Provisions.•      3.0      How to Use Section•      3.1      Site Preparation•      3.

2      Footings and foundation Slabs•      3.3      Building Masonry•      3.4      Framing•      3.5      Roof and Wall Cladding•      3.6      Glazing•      3.7      Fire Safety•      3.8       Healthand Amenity- – Facilities, Light, Ventilation, Sound Insulation•      3.9        SafeMovement and Access – Staircase Construction, Balustrades, Swimming pool             Access•      3.

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10    Additional Construction Requirements –Highwind regions, Earthquake prone regions•      3.11    Structural Design Manuals•      3.12     EnergyEfficiencyFire Activemeasures is to control smoke spreading, detection and communicate the fireoutbreak occurred. It is a proactive approach to extinguish fire.Fire Break Glass Alarm:To activate fire alarm and alert the fire brigade easily. The red panel on thewall with a small button, when pressed will contact the Fire Brigade.

 Fire Control Systems: Thisis a hub of the fire alarm system in a building. It will be located in theground floor which will be near an entrance or exit close to the nearest road.The panel can be located in a cabinet/wall. There will be a number of lightsand buttons on the panel which is an indication that fire sensor has been activatedin that building.Fire Doors: To minimizethe spread of fire, the passage of smoke through a building. These will beautomatically operated by heat activated mechanisms and smoke detectors.Smoke and Thermal Fire Detectors: The detection system sense either heator smoke or both.

Smoke detectors are being used extensively because of theirearlier warning of an emergency. Smoke detectors are used to activate firedoors to isolate zones in the building.Portable Fire ExtinguishersThese are used to extinguish a small fire in its initial stage.Fire Hose Reels & Fire HydrantsCanvas fire hoses are attachedto fire hydrant points which are installed for use by the Fire Brigade. Theyshould not be used by public, only trained.PassiveFire ProtectionThe steel members when exposed to elevated temperatures in a firesituation, the rise in temperature is to be reduced. Buchanan, (2001), statesthat fire resistance rating of a protected steel member which is determined bycalculations and depends on factors such as properties of protection materialand fire temperature, there should be some fire resistance rating.

Concrete encasement: Concrete in the formwork housing the steel members,which also increases the cost of construction.Board systems: These are developed using calcium silicate or gypsumplaster. Calcium silicate boards are designed to remain in place during thefire accidents Gypsum boards have good insulating properties resistant to firebecause of the presence of water in the board This reaction provides a timedelay when the board reaches about 100 °C, but reduces the strength of theboard after exposure to fire.

Spray-on protection system: Cement-based with form of glass orcellulosic fibrous reinforcing to hold the material together.Intumescent paint is a special paint that swells into a thick charwhen it is exposed to elevated temperatures enhancing the fire rating of thesteel member beneath.Using timber boards:  Encasing structural members with timber is oneof the passive fire protection. The timber should be seasoned and athermosetting adhesive is used to fix the boarding over the structural members.

Concrete filling: This is used for hollow steel sections to improvetheir fire performance. The main advantage of this is no need of externalprotection and this can increase the load bearing capacity of thesection/member. Water filling system: This works with similar principle of concretefilling, here hollow steel sections are filled with water. The water filled hassome additives added to prevent corrosion.

It requires plumbing systems forwater flow in the members by. It is only used in special structures and isexpensive than other systems.Flame shields: This protects external steelwork from radiation. Theflames exit through the window openings. Architectural claddings are installedto form the shields

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