The Harlem Renaissance (12.8)

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Last updated: May 2, 2019

Marcus Garvey
The most prominent African American leader to emerge in the 1920s. He believed in the complete separation of Blacks and Whites, promoted Black nationalism, and created a sense of Black pride, something almost unheard of among African Americans before

Jazz
Musical form based on improvisation that was invented by African Americans during the 1920s that became a movement in itself. It spread from the South–namely New Orleans–to the North, and served as a symbol of the 1920s. Radio and phonographs spread the musical style across the country and even to Europe. It explored and shared African American culture and roots, and showed how diverse American culture as a whole was

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Louis Armstrong
Trumpet player who became the unofficial ambassador of jazz

Bessie Smith
Famous vocal soloist who sang alongside jazz bands; “Empress of the Blues”

Harlem Renaissance
Flowering of African American culture and pride during the 1920s. It changed the way Whites saw African Americans and how African Americans viewed themselves.

It also spurred a movement of African American art and literature, and the Civil Rights movement by creating a sense of African American pride, group identity, and solidarity

Claude McKay
The most militant of the African American writers on the forefront of the Harlem Renaissance

Langston Hughes
The most powerful African American literary voice of the 1920s. He used his writing and saw the Harlem Renaissance as a celebration of African American culture and life

Zora Neale Hurston
Powerful African American voice in the literary world who explored African American roots with folktales, as well as advocated for women’s rights

Universal Negro Improvement Association
Association created by Marcus Garvey that promoted the separation of Blacks and Whites and encouraged African American pride and Nationalism. This organization gained much support, but fell apart after Marcus Garvey was arrested. However, the ideas of nationalism, Black pride, and separatism fueled later movements for African American equality

New Negro
Name for African Americans of the 1920s that suggested a break from the past: African Americans would no longer silently endure exploitation and discrimination. This was expressed in Harlem, where African American writers and artists conveyed African American joys and troubles

Bix Beiderbecke
The first White jazz musician.

He showed how jazz crossed race lines and was a shared cultural phenomenon in the U.S.

Gerald Early
Modern scholar who predicted that America would be best remembered partly for jazz

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