The However, a relatively limited vase life reduces

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Last updated: March 25, 2019

The Chrysanthemum was first cultivated in Chinaas early as the 15th century BC. These well-rounded flowers comefrom the Greek word chrys (gold) and anthemum (flower) which means goldenflower. Historically, chrysanthemums were primarily yellow flowers, which standfor happiness and health, (Steinbeck,2011, Kofranek, 1992.). (Kitamura cv.

Pattriot) Chrysanthemum is one of the most importantand marketable cut flowers in the world. However, a relatively limited vaselife reduces its marketability. In cut flowers, hydraulic properties anddimensions of xylem vessels in the stem directly influence vase-life and thuspost-harvest quality.

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Xylem hydraulic conductance as well as recovery from airembolisms (Van, et.al. 1997 &2002) and Senescence of cut flowers is induced by water stress,carbohydrate decline, bacterial contamination and etc. Oneof the major causes of deterioration in the cut flowers is the blockage ofxylem vessels by air and microorganisms that cause xylem occlusion. The mostadverse effect on cut flowers is caused by ethylene, showing its deleteriouseffects, e.g.

Leaf yellowing into flower (or petal) drop, irregular opening andpremature death (Nowak and Rudnicki, 1990).   Many studies have correlated in thepresent of bacterial cell numbers increase in vase water with reduced cutflower vase life (van Doom et al.,1989); Put, 1990). Physically block the cut flower stem (Put and Klop, 1990),produce enzymes which break down walls of conducting xylem vessels (Burdett, 1970),produce ethylene or induce its production in the flower and thus acceleratedeterioration (Zagory and Reid, 1986), or produce toxic metabolites(Accati-Garibaldi, 1983).

6 A wide range of flower preservatives inthe form of germicides, ethylene antagonistics and source of energy (sucrose)are in use to preserve the quality and post harvest longevity of cut flowers. Preservativesvariety and temperature treatments have been advocated for extending the vaselife of cut flowers of different varieties according to Park, et.al. (2000) PresentSituation of Cut Flower Production Cut flowers are grown throughout thePhilippines but the industry was originally confined only to a few, smallgrowers. An increased demand triggered more production but despite the largerarea devoted to cut flower; there is still a short fall in the supply, mainly chrysanthemum and orchidsfor the domestic market isso big that the country has no option but import some cut flowers from othercountries. This is strongly evident during Valentine’s Day (Feb.

14),All Saints Day (Nov. 1), School Graduation (March and April), Flower Festivals(May), and Yuletide Seasons (December) according to Teresita L. Rosario, et.al. (1991– 2000).  7 Hydration SolutionsAccording to Terril A. Nell, Ph.D.

, AAF, – Society of AmericanFlorists’ (SAF), these solutions are used primarily bygrowers, wholesalers and bouquet-makers to assure that flowers contain highlevels of water prior to shipping to retail customers and consumers. Theycontain biocides to control microbial activity in the solution and stem, abuffer to lower the solution pH and a wetting agent to accelerate water uptake.In many instances, wholesale florists use hydration solutions as part of atwo-step program—hydration solution for one to two hours followed by a flowerfood until the flowers are sold because hydration solutions do not contain anynutrients.

 Flower FoodFlowersare harvested when fully developed to ensure a long postharvest life and tominimize mechanical damages that might occur during handling. The developmentof these flower buds requires food, which is stored in the leaves and stems.When the stored carbohydrates are low, leaves and flowers senesce rapidly andpetals that develop at low sugar levels have pale colors. Under thesesituations, supplements can be provided to the flowers by adding Molasses assugar to the vase solutions. The optimumconcentration of sugar varies significantly depending on the flowers beingtreated. Most flowersbenefit from a continuous supply of 2% sugar in the vase solution, such as Gladioli4 to 6 % sugar solution, Zinnias and Coralbells, sustain damage when treatedwith concentrations of sugars higher than 1%, and also Chrysanthemums and ChinaAsters, do well (Prince, TA et.al. 1988).

  8 The postharvest life of cut Eustoma a grandiflorum flower is limited by poor bud openingand bent neck in open flowers. Vase solutions containing up to 6% sucrose or glucose improved thequality and vase life of the flowers. Carbohydrate improved petal color,increased bud opening, strengthened pedicels, and extended overallinflorescence longevity of cut flower. Presence of sugar in the vase solutiongreatly increased the concentration of sugars in the flower structure of budsand open flowers. Eustoma flowers are affected by exposure to ethyleneand pre-treatment with 1-MCP or STS delays final senescence of flowers thathave been held in solutions containing sugar.One of the advantages of cutflower is that, after harvesting, glucose can be supplied in the vase solutionto improve the quality and post harvest life of many species (Halevy &Mayak, 1979). Flower food solutions were developed to helpretailers and consumers increase the vase life and opening of their flowers.

These products contain all the essential ingredients of hydration solutionswith the addition of sugar.PreservativeSolution            Commercial preservative will increase the life cut flowers;acidifier, inhibitor of microorganisms and a respiratory inhibitor. Insures continued developmentand longevity of the flower sucrose serves as a source of energy to make up forthe loss of the functioning leaves.

An acidifier makes the pH of the water nearerthe acid pH of the cell sap. 9 A preservativesolution that is critical for the handling of field-grown cut flowers used tolower the pH is citric acid. It has been shown that low pH water (pH=3.5)travels faster in the water-conducting system (xylem), thereby preventing andreducing wilting that frequently occurs in field-grown flowers.On the other hand, 1 – MCP(1-methylcyclopropene) an ethylene receptor inhibitor, is gaseous at roomtemperature, with a non-toxic, irreversible effect, and the effectiveconcentration is low, efficient, and environmentally friendly and it also haslow cost advantages. In foreign countries, it is applied to fruits andvegetables and other horticultural products and ethylene-sensitive Phalaenopsisflowers postpartum preservation, although the flowers tendered on applicationstart, but it has been confirmed, 1-MCP on postpartum keeping with good businessprospects (ZhouCaiLian,2007).

The use of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)gas is released from a powder upon wetting. The gas permeates through all stemand flower tissues to inhibit the damaging effects of ethylene (Serek, et.al., 1994). The use of thissolution should be used by growers to ensure that flowers are protectedimmediately after harvest with 1-MCP by the importers or bouquet-makers on thetransport trucks (Floral Endowment AFE).In addition, Chrysal flower food wasintroduced in the market in 1949; it caused a revolution in the floralindustry, being the first professional cut flower food ever invented. The useof Chrysal flower food extends the life span of cut flowers enormoThe Chrysanthemum was first cultivated in Chinaas early as the 15th century BC. These well-rounded flowers comefrom the Greek word chrys (gold) and anthemum (flower) which means goldenflower.

Historically, chrysanthemums were primarily yellow flowers, which standfor happiness and health, (Steinbeck,2011, Kofranek, 1992.). (Kitamura cv.

Pattriot) Chrysanthemum is one of the most importantand marketable cut flowers in the world. However, a relatively limited vaselife reduces its marketability. In cut flowers, hydraulic properties anddimensions of xylem vessels in the stem directly influence vase-life and thuspost-harvest quality. Xylem hydraulic conductance as well as recovery from airembolisms (Van, et.al.

1997 &2002) and Senescence of cut flowers is induced by water stress,carbohydrate decline, bacterial contamination and etc.Oneof the major causes of deterioration in the cut flowers is the blockage ofxylem vessels by air and microorganisms that cause xylem occlusion. The mostadverse effect on cut flowers is caused by ethylene, showing its deleteriouseffects, e.g. Leaf yellowing into flower (or petal) drop, irregular opening andpremature death (Nowak and Rudnicki, 1990).   Many studies have correlated in thepresent of bacterial cell numbers increase in vase water with reduced cutflower vase life (van Doom et al.

,1989); Put, 1990). Physically block the cut flower stem (Put and Klop, 1990),produce enzymes which break down walls of conducting xylem vessels (Burdett, 1970),produce ethylene or induce its production in the flower and thus acceleratedeterioration (Zagory and Reid, 1986), or produce toxic metabolites(Accati-Garibaldi, 1983). 6 A wide range of flower preservatives inthe form of germicides, ethylene antagonistics and source of energy (sucrose)are in use to preserve the quality and post harvest longevity of cut flowers. Preservativesvariety and temperature treatments have been advocated for extending the vaselife of cut flowers of different varieties according to Park, et.al.

(2000) PresentSituation of Cut Flower Production Cut flowers are grown throughout thePhilippines but the industry was originally confined only to a few, smallgrowers. An increased demand triggered more production but despite the largerarea devoted to cut flower; there is still a short fall in the supply, mainly chrysanthemum and orchidsfor the domestic market isso big that the country has no option but import some cut flowers from othercountries. This is strongly evident during Valentine’s Day (Feb. 14),All Saints Day (Nov. 1), School Graduation (March and April), Flower Festivals(May), and Yuletide Seasons (December) according to Teresita L. Rosario, et.al. (1991– 2000).

  7 Hydration SolutionsAccording to Terril A. Nell, Ph.D., AAF, – Society of AmericanFlorists’ (SAF), these solutions are used primarily bygrowers, wholesalers and bouquet-makers to assure that flowers contain highlevels of water prior to shipping to retail customers and consumers. Theycontain biocides to control microbial activity in the solution and stem, abuffer to lower the solution pH and a wetting agent to accelerate water uptake.In many instances, wholesale florists use hydration solutions as part of atwo-step program—hydration solution for one to two hours followed by a flowerfood until the flowers are sold because hydration solutions do not contain anynutrients.  Flower FoodFlowersare harvested when fully developed to ensure a long postharvest life and tominimize mechanical damages that might occur during handling. The developmentof these flower buds requires food, which is stored in the leaves and stems.

When the stored carbohydrates are low, leaves and flowers senesce rapidly andpetals that develop at low sugar levels have pale colors. Under thesesituations, supplements can be provided to the flowers by adding Molasses assugar to the vase solutions. The optimumconcentration of sugar varies significantly depending on the flowers beingtreated. Most flowersbenefit from a continuous supply of 2% sugar in the vase solution, such as Gladioli4 to 6 % sugar solution, Zinnias and Coralbells, sustain damage when treatedwith concentrations of sugars higher than 1%, and also Chrysanthemums and ChinaAsters, do well (Prince, TA et.al. 1988).   8 The postharvest life of cut Eustoma a grandiflorum flower is limited by poor bud openingand bent neck in open flowers.

Vase solutions containing up to 6% sucrose or glucose improved thequality and vase life of the flowers. Carbohydrate improved petal color,increased bud opening, strengthened pedicels, and extended overallinflorescence longevity of cut flower. Presence of sugar in the vase solutiongreatly increased the concentration of sugars in the flower structure of budsand open flowers. Eustoma flowers are affected by exposure to ethyleneand pre-treatment with 1-MCP or STS delays final senescence of flowers thathave been held in solutions containing sugar.One of the advantages of cutflower is that, after harvesting, glucose can be supplied in the vase solutionto improve the quality and post harvest life of many species (Halevy &Mayak, 1979). Flower food solutions were developed to helpretailers and consumers increase the vase life and opening of their flowers.

These products contain all the essential ingredients of hydration solutionswith the addition of sugar.PreservativeSolution            Commercial preservative will increase the life cut flowers;acidifier, inhibitor of microorganisms and a respiratory inhibitor. Insures continued developmentand longevity of the flower sucrose serves as a source of energy to make up forthe loss of the functioning leaves. An acidifier makes the pH of the water nearerthe acid pH of the cell sap. 9 A preservativesolution that is critical for the handling of field-grown cut flowers used tolower the pH is citric acid. It has been shown that low pH water (pH=3.5)travels faster in the water-conducting system (xylem), thereby preventing andreducing wilting that frequently occurs in field-grown flowers.

On the other hand, 1 – MCP(1-methylcyclopropene) an ethylene receptor inhibitor, is gaseous at roomtemperature, with a non-toxic, irreversible effect, and the effectiveconcentration is low, efficient, and environmentally friendly and it also haslow cost advantages. In foreign countries, it is applied to fruits andvegetables and other horticultural products and ethylene-sensitive Phalaenopsisflowers postpartum preservation, although the flowers tendered on applicationstart, but it has been confirmed, 1-MCP on postpartum keeping with good businessprospects (ZhouCaiLian,2007). The use of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)gas is released from a powder upon wetting.

The gas permeates through all stemand flower tissues to inhibit the damaging effects of ethylene (Serek, et.al., 1994).

The use of thissolution should be used by growers to ensure that flowers are protectedimmediately after harvest with 1-MCP by the importers or bouquet-makers on thetransport trucks (Floral Endowment AFE).In addition, Chrysal flower food wasintroduced in the market in 1949; it caused a revolution in the floralindustry, being the first professional cut flower food ever invented. The useof Chrysal flower food extends the life span of cut flowers enormously. In somecases the life span even doubles (JoepWlegel, 2012). Improves vase life by an average of 75% vs.

water alone, retainsbloom color, intensity and keeps stems firm and green introduced IFTF, (2014).usly. In somecases the life span even doubles (JoepWlegel, 2012). Improves vase life by an average of 75% vs. water alone, retainsbloom color, intensity and keeps stems firm and green introduced IFTF, (2014).

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