The New Rhetoric
The New Rhetoric
Various areas of activities by man involve the use of language. Language is conceptualized by the use of utterance, which comes in both oral and written from. Utterances are influenced by the thematic content, the style of speech or written utterances, the style of the utterances and the compositional formation of the utterances (Bizzell, & Bruce, 2001).
Neutral styles in speech suggest an identity of the speaker. The speaker foregoes the opportunity to express himself. A stylistic analysis approach is possible on the whole utterance, and in only in that chronological order of speech that the utterance is undistinguishable. Quality of speech is dictated by the acts that dictate the utterance of an individual. An utterance without whom it is addressed to is just a language all by itself as it lacks meaning due to the absence of the addressee. As a speaker the presence of an addressee to whom the statement is directed gives the statement a sense of validity, but that forms only part of it. An utterance is formed by different elements that make it relevant (Bizzell, & Bruce, 2001). Language according to the literature provided is part of purely linguistic efforts that are only a means of expressing oneself on formal addresses, personal forms and other forms that might be relevant to the speaker. However, when in the presence of an addressee a statement of a speaker evolves from a linguistic or language perspective to a new level and is classified as an utterance (Bizzell, & Bruce, 2001).
The analysis of a sentence devoid of its anticipated response, context, and the presence of comprehension and the anticipation of response from the reader or to whom an individual the statement is addressed to give the phenomena of utterance its meaning. A sentence lacks meaning if it lacks an addressee because it cannot exist in itself. Writing is done for people to read and understand.
Mikhail argues that literature in its instructional methodology does not provide a chronological treatment of the styles of the individual grammatical forms used (Bakhtin, 2004). Stylistic explanations of the syntax should be availed to the learner such that they understands the use of certain types of connotations of grammar and are able to enhance their creativity in terms of speech both written and oral (Bakhtin, 2004). Parataxis linguistic styles should be appreciated by learners because it makes sentences easy to use, understand and explain the meaning of such sentences. He uses the carnival nature to illustrate contemporary culture such that he uses this approach to compare high and low in contemporary culture. I find this approach as excellent to illustrate how society and people function and how the capitalism uses the grotesque to gain advantage of the society and people. The carnival represents high emotions while the low represents the grotesque. This is a clear illustration of a contemporary society and how it influences language and dialogue between people in society. Everything to Bakhtin is from a social approach because language is made and determined by society and the utterances in society dwell on relations of people in society. Society works from a high and low perspective as he explains to the reader of the differences between people in society due to the presence of different classes or social statuses.
Styles used in a sentence elicit facial expressions as well as manta imagery by the reader. The modification of such a sentence leads to the formation of a new sentence that is maybe flat such that it does not elicit any reactions from the reader or can elicit different or mixed reactions from the reader that were different from the initial reactions of the reader (Bakhtin, 2004). He explains that parataxis and hypotaxis in constructing sentences are used in unique ways to form different sentences (Bakhtin, 2004). Parataxis is used to form scientific and practical language in speech whereas the hypotaxis is used in legitimate and necessary words in speech. Parataxic sentences allow the reader to understand the writer’s intonation, which is different from the book language, used.
In conclusion, Bakhtin’s understanding of language is a form of pedagogy that can only be illustrated through substantive elucidated (Bakhtin, 2004). Language has a great effect on the process of thinking by the person who uses the language. Thoughts, which are creative, are usually influenced by great language and speech both oral and written. The use of the carnival and grotesque approach is fascinating as he illustrates how language is influenced by different aspects in society. Different people in a society are illustrated by the high in society while the low is represented by the grotesque.
Bakhtin, M.M. (2004). Dialogic origin and dialogic Pedagogy of Grammar: Stylistics in Teaching Russian Language in Secondary school. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology.12-49.
Bizzell, P., & Bruce, H. (2001).The rhetorical tradition: Readings from classical times to the present. 2nd Edition. Boston: Bedford/St.