The Psychodynamic perspective wasestablished by Sigmund Freud. It emphasizes the unconscious levels of the mindand contends that childhood experiences are crucial in shaping adultpersonality. Freud believes that hidden in the unconscious part of the mind areunresolved and hurtful memories which are then pushed into the conscious. Healso believed that unless these repressed thoughts and feelings be brought intothe consciousness through psychoanalysis, irrational behavior may occur.
Freud theorized that there arethree levels of personality structure; ID, Ego and Super Ego. The ID is themost basic part of the personality and wants instant gratification for anindividual’s wants or needs. It exists only for pleasure, it does not considerwhat is realistic nor does it have the ability to be logical or consider whatis moral. In essence it is just a collection of urges. The ID is located in theunconscious. The Ego deals with the reality of pleasing the ID at sociallyaccepted level.
This includes delaying gratification. The Ego recognizes thatother individuals have needs and not all their needs can be met, The Ego canthink about things, observe reality and decide what is rational and realistic.Freud believed that a mentally healthy person has a strong ego, keeping the IDand superego balanced, because if they become imbalanced mental illnesses willoccur. The Super Ego develops last andis primarily based on morals or judgment about what is right or wrong. The ID,Ego and Super Ego works together to create a behavior.
Anxiety proves to be awarning of impending danger, the Ego may resort to protective measures whichFreud describes as defense mechanisms, these defense mechanisms in turn soothesanxiety. Newer Psychodynamic perspectives include Object – relations theory,the interpersonal perspective and Attachment theory. Freud’s theory is thefirst to explain how human psychological processes can lead to disorders.