The or normal activities. And if the crisis

The nature of crisis is as defined by
Kanel (2014) “as a person’s emotional and psychological imbalance” and occurs
when a precipitation event arises follow by the perception of a person to the
event as threatening or damaging and then this type of perception leads to a
person’s emotional distress that will then leads to impairment of their
equilibrium and disruptions of their usual or normal activities. And if the
crisis is not intervened, the person’s behaviours can be threatening to
themselves or others. There are a couple of different types of crisis and I
will be explaining some. Being bullied in school or workplace, marital
separation, loss of significant others can cause a great deal of emotional
distress. Being hurt physically can also lead to emotional distress and then
contribute to a person’s crisis such as physical accident from work or
motorcycle accident.


The effect of crisis can affect a person
in many ways. The ABC model of attitude consist of Affective(feelings),
Behaviour(behaviour) and Cognition(thoughts). Affective component involves a
person’s feelings about the attitude object. For example, “I am scared of
cockroaches”. Behaviour component involves the attitude we have influences how
we react, act or behave. For example, “I will avoid and scream when I see a
cockroach”. Cognitive component involves a person’s thoughts/belief about an
attitude object. For example, “I believe cockroach are dangerous and dirty”
(McLeod, 2014). When a person is in crisis, we can measure the impact of crisis
on ABC model of attitude it will instil to the person by using the Triage
Assessment Form(TAF). It can be grouped to three categories; minimal
impairment, moderate impairment and severe impairment. When a person is under
minimal impairment, the person’s Affective component are somewhat appropriate
but there is some noticeable negativity and liability, Emotions are generally
still under control but is primarily focused on the crisis event, their
responses may vary from agitated to slow and subdued and the person could have
longer periods of negative mood that is slightly more intense than the
situation warrants. Their Behaviour component of how they behave will be
ineffective but not dangerous, Behaviours could still be controlled by self or
request by others even with some resistance from the person, the person could
neglect some necessary tasks for daily living and functioning is somewhat
compromised. The Cognitive component are increasingly irrational but post no
potential harm to self or others but the person is somewhat inconsiderate of
others, their thinking is focused on the crisis but not extremely consuming,
the person still have the ability to have reasonable dialogue but is restricted
by the failure to see other perspectives, they might have recurrent
difficulties with problem solving and decision making and their perception are
differed in some aspect from reality. Moving on, when a person is under moderate
impairment, the person’s Affective component are primarily negative and are
exaggerated, interventionist considerable efforts to control and subdue liable
emotions are not always successful, the person’s response are highly emotional
but is somewhat appropriate and could be controlled with effort. Their
behavioural component are maladaptive but not immediately destructive, the
person’s behaviour are very difficult to control even with efforts from others
and their behaviour is becoming more of a threat to themselves and others. The
Cognitive component are irrational and might potentially post a threat to self
or others, the person’s thoughts, feelings and well-being is increasingly
disregarded, their thoughts on the crisis situation are becoming consuming,
their problem solving and decision-making abilities are adversely affected and
their perception is differed noticeably from reality. Lastly when a person is
under severe impairment, the person’s Affective component are extremely
pronounced in a negative way, they have no ability to control feelings and
cannot respond to questions because of the severe disturbance of emotions and
they might be Depersonalized from themselves. Their Behaviour are totally
ineffective, erratic and highly dangerous that could cause harm to self and
others. The Cognitive component is severely shut down and their thoughts became
chaotic, their ability to understand and respond is non-existent and they might
start to have severe paranoia and have hallucinations bouts (James &
Gilliland, 2017).

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As crisis are constantly studied, it has
become more apparent that crisis occurs chaotically and disorganized and will
always transact from one state of crisis to another. Upon knowing, the Hybrid
Model is then designed to enhance the earlier linear method to crisis
intervention (James & Gilliland, 2017). The Hybrid model consist of 7 tasks
and this section will explain the reason for the tasks follow by an example of
how each task is illustrated. But before we go into the first task, one of a
task is not within the 7 task as it is a should to include it at every task
which is Ensuring Client’s Safety. This task should always be the priority
every time and always make sure the client is safe from hurting themselves. The
first task is predisposition (engaging and initiating contact). Establishing a
positive connection to the person in crisis is an important aspect to build a
good relationship of communication that will help to understand the needs of
the client and the intention of the worker to help the client. An example of
this task is “What brings you here today?”, “Can you tell me more about the
situation?”. These questions show that the counsellor is interested in finding
out what the crisis situation is about that propels the client to feel he/she
is with people who are sensitive to the issue and is willing to hear and
understand the client’s feelings. The second task is problem exploration. This
task opens up discussion of how the client is feeling from their point of view.
Finding out how the client had been affected, what they need and their
feelings. It can be access by using who, why, when, where questions. An example
of this task is to ask questions consistently for instance “I understand you
are screwed over this incident, so tell me what got you so mad and
frustrated?”. The third task is Providing Support. It cannot be emphasized
enough that when a person is going through a traumatic crisis to talk, to be
heard and to have someone to understand their feelings without judgement.
Discovering their needs and assist them is the best support for the client in
crisis and it can also be classified into 3 different types of support;
Psychological, Logistical and Social support. An example of this task is “I can
tell you are very upset and frustrated and a lot of it comes from the constant
bullying you are experiencing.”, “How can I help with your situation?”. The
fourth task is Examining Alternatives. What other option or support could
benefit the client or what does the client actually want. These supports can
span from Medications, therapies or social supports. It is significant to
understand that these alternatives are better when they are made
collaboratively and when the alternatives selected are preferred by the client.
An example of this task is “So, what steps do you think we can take from here,
to make this a better situation?”. This question is intended to find a possible
solution to the situation. The fifth task is Planning in Order to Re-establish
Control. This step involves making concrete plans together with the client in
order to mobilize them to help them gain some control over the situation and it
could also empowers them with improved life skills and resiliency for the
future. A good plan should have two objective in mind, first objective being is
to identify groups of social support or resources that can be contacted for
support. Second objective is to provide coping mechanisms and the plans should
be realistic in terms of the client’s coping ability. An example of this task
is “Ok, well maybe we could seek help from the care centre first and proceed
from there”. The sixth task is to Obtain Commitment from the client to continue
to move forward to improve the situation. This step also clarifies the role of
the counsellor and client and instil knowledge to what responsibility is held
by themselves and allows for both control and autonomy. Commitment can be
obtained by; “So tell me what we are going to do?”, “Maybe we can come out with
an agreement of the said plan”. The seventh and last task is to Follow Up with
the client after the initial intervention to warrant that the client’s crisis
is on the way to being resolute and client’s equilibrium is on the pre-crisis
level. Counsellors can ask question like “Do you have a better understanding on
the situation now? And how are you going to handle it differently?” And it is
also good to provide information to client on how to contact you if needed in
the future (James & Gilliland, 2017).


There are some challenges that could be
faced while applying the 7 tasks model. In this section I will criticized some
of the personal flaws as a counsellor I feel I might have or other superficial
problems during counselling and come up with a possible solution to the
challenges in the following section.

It is important to stay Poised throughout
the whole intervention process because crisis can be out of control and might
change drastically that could catch us off guard. By being Poised is to stay
calm, stable, rational and in control during crisis for the client, because
when clients are in crisis they could be out of control and present danger to
themselves or others. I feel that I am lacking “Poise” when I am overwhelmed
with crisis that is constantly changing and I might panic and lose confidence
in myself that could render me unable to make rational decisions and it is
extremely dangerous for the client in crisis that is already out of control.

Silence in counselling most of the time is
inevitable. Although Silence is not necessary a bad thing, it could be
unhealthy when it is handled or interpreted wrongly for example awkward silence
is not a good process. Sometimes I might get stuck with words and not know what
to say in response to the client’s speech. I also feel that the anxiety for me
to perform as a counsellor will utter me to speak words that is illogical to
the situation and that might lead the conversation to go off track or confusing
possibly resulting in awkward silence. Also as a person myself, I also dislike
silence because I interpret silence as uncomfortable and awkward even though it
is not necessarily true all the time and I do find myself trying not to fill a
silence, but I just can’t seem to help it to always break silence even though
the silence might be therapeutic and helpful. It could be a misconception from
my part that because counselling is about ‘talking’ then silences mean that I
am not helping the client. I could also misinterpret silence, for example the
client is actually feeling stuck and that I should “break the ice” when
necessary after a moment, instead I misinterpret it as the client is
experiencing emotions.

Humour can be a good skill to implement
whenever appropriate. But it could misfire or fall flat and become counterproductive
and waste of therapeutic time when it is used ineffectively. The client, in the
presence of such counterproductive humour may feel that I am taking his problem
lightly or assume that I am a superficial person whose seriousness and
capacities cannot be trusted. Implementing effective humour is mostly due to
the tones, facial expression and changes of body tone also the words used in
the humour. Knowing myself personally, I tend to have a “dry” personality. A
little aloof and humourless and kind of have little change in my tone and
facial expression when speaking most of the time. I feel that I am unable to
implement humour in session productively and it is a challenge for me.

Counsellor burnout could be an issue for
me, there could be a lot of factors contributing to the burnout. It could be
mental and emotional exhaustion caused by long-term involvement in an emotional
demanding workplace. Feeling of helplessness and hopelessness that could be
derive by my counselling does not seem to help my client despite my utmost
effort, or client is resistant/reluctant to change. Compassion fatigue due to
myself being in a prolonged and intense exposure to my client’s stress. It
could be also caused by the workload being too complex, too much, too urgent or
even too awful. I fear that I am unable to cope with the burnout thus wearing
down the optimism and motivation in me.



Solution for me lacking “Poise” is to
understand the flaws and better myself. I could engage in Personal Therapy for
myself (Miller, 2011). Personal Supervision with the help of a mentor can also
help build up my Poise by identifying personal area in my life that may impede
the lack of Poise. I could try to change my negative thinking into more
positive ones like believing in myself and focusing on my strengths. I must
always reassure myself to stay stable in crisis for the sake of my client.

If I get stuck with words during session,
I could use more open-ended questions like “Can you elaborate more on the
situation? Or “Tell me more about the feelings u felt when it happened” because
by using this type of question or statement, I let my client know that I am
interested in his inner experience and that he sets the direction of the
therapy. Usually he will feel encouraged to continue exploring the thoughts and
feelings related to the current issue or to shift to an issue that feels more
relevant and that prevents unhealthy awkward silence. Other than getting stuck
with words ( I am aware that I have the conception of
discomfort with silence even though it could be a good therapeutic process, and
I should change my way of thinking that actually silence is far from being
uncomfortable and awkward I perceive it as, but is more so a gift, something
the client is likely to experience in the company of others, something that is
actually productive that provides the client to time to reflect and feel
emotions. By thinking that silence is actually a “gift” I am starting to accept
and sit with silence.

Using humour is a challenge for me but that
doesn’t mean I have to completely avoid using humour. I could still use humour,
but one thing I could do is to be extra careful while using it. I could develop
better sub-skills of humour like I could access the client’s ability to accept
humour, what type of humour they are more inclined. Humour is still a risk at
times, if the client reacted negatively it is imperative that I repair the
mistake and learn the client’s pattern. As for me having a “dry” personality,
the solution for me is to seek personal supervision and from the help of my
mentor to identify personal areas in my life that may impede the counselling
process and improve from there.

Burnout could happen,
but there are ways to prevent or at least help with burnout. I should create a
boundary between work and home and maintain a personal identity, engage myself
in activities that can promote self-efficacy and empowerment. I could also
engage myself in psychotherapy. Getting proper and regular supervision is
essential as well (Webb, 2007). Getting social support help will benefit me a
lot. Periodically, workers like me would also need someone to listen actively
to me in an empathic manner


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