The manner established power for the ruling class, portrayingan “unchallenging authority” (Watkins, 2005:468).
However, gothic architecturewas a display of pride for many nations. Even the ordinary person felt part ofthis movement. They felt like part of the community marching towards a commongoal of national progress. Whether it was a political, religious, territorialor industrial expansion, gothic architecture was always used to celebrate it.Gothic architecture symbolises positive progression and pride in your community.Conclusion The Lloyds Building echoes St-Denis cathedral, reflectingthe inside on the exterior of the building. Furthermore, the atrium appears skeletal,making the majority of the walls out of glass.
This reflects the same kind ofdesign as crystal place, even using a barrel vault roof.Allthis gives the tower an imposing and grand manner, reflecting the importance andpower of knowledge. The name, Cathedral of learning, sets a precedent of theacademic attitude. An expectation of devotion like that to the church in themedivial period.The interior has many classic aspects of Gothicarchitecture. There are towering collumns made up of many emalgamated collumns,ribbed vaulting and pointed arch doorways and windows. However the windows arenarrow so wont let in much light. Thus breaking from the classic gothic form.
The Cathedral of Learning resideson the campus of Pittsburgh, built in 1926-37 (Lewis, 2001:189). There arepointed arch windows nearly as tall as the entire tower, dragging the eye tothe top of the structure. The small width of the building emphasises the vastheight of the structure. The various smaller towers surrounding the centre pinnaclemimics the vertical buttresses seen in the Prague cathedral.
The idea of minimalwalls, was taken to its extremity in crystal palace in Hyde park, London,1851.The structure was made of glass and cast iron (Watkins, 2015:472), creating a skeletalstructure in a gothic manner. The use of new materials reflected the newinnovations of the industrial revolution, such as steamboats and the railroad (Lewis,2002:110). The crystal palace soon after opening hosted the first world’s fair,reflecting the new international ideas of England (Lewis,2002:110). London had become a modern city, open and encouraging new technologies,ideas and investments in science. Paralleling the birth of gothic architecture,Britain obtained a new sense of national pride and needed a way to expressthis.
Influence on Modern Architecture The netted vault is a key aspect of progression to highgothic architecture from early gothic. A netted vault includes more ribs for purelydecorative purposes, created a net effect canopy. At the at start of the aislethe vaulting is more traditional, closer to the rib vaulting at the birthof the gothic style. As you reach the choir and alter, the vaulting become infinitelymore complex. This netted vaulting pulls the visitors eye to the front of the cathedral.Additionally, the carving at the front has its own gothic pinnacles surroundinga sculpture of the crucifixion. The exterior is thestereotypical gothic cathedral, containing sharp pinnacles, buttresses andpointed archways.
However, the interior has some innovative ideas that would goon the influence many buildings to come. The bold horizontal mouldings,cornices, create a contrast to the strong, vast vertical lines within the cathedral(Frankel, 1962:158). Thus, emphasising the towering aspect of gothicarchitecture. Furthermore, when they are “crossed by the shafts it projects atriangle form” (Frankel, 1962:158), displaying the fascination Heinrich Parlerhad with diagonal compositions (Watkins, 2015:187). Within any movement thereis an evolution. This final stage of Gothic progression can be seen in theChurch of The Holy Cross in Schwabisch-Gmund, 1351. This was constructed byHenrich Parler (Watkins,2015:187). The Parlerfamily were extremely valuable to the gothic period, creating buildings in Vienne,Prague and Cologne (Grodeki,1986:22).
The cathedral display’s many aspects of this predecessor theAbby of St Denis. The Cathedral is segmented. The buttresses and flyingbuttresses separate each lancet window while creating a unity connecting allthe sections, generating a juxtaposition. Moreover, it incorporates the rosewindow within a square setting, flanked by two tall towers. However, the towersappear a lot more ornate, decorated with a cascade of pinnacles. This aspect iswhat attribute to Gothic’s well renowned spikey and foreboding demeanour, aidedby the unusually pointed frame of the doorways surrounded with small pinnacles.While looking powerful and fearsome, it maintains a regal beauty.
The manysmall details merge into a delicate lace style, reflecting the power of the churchand monarchs. Power is full of beauty and riches but it also commands the powerto destroy. It possesses an intimidatingattraction.The many spires and pinnacles are a mark gothic architectureof this region. in buildings such asCattedrale di Siena, Italy. Even the flying buttresses are ornamented with anypinnacles. On the Prague Cathedral, with each spire holding a holy cross, itcan be seen to represent a step closer to connecting with god. People come tochurch to pray and to repent for their sins.
In each act, they are trying tomeet the morale to achieve access to heaven. This is an apt use as this ismeant to house an archbishop, a man who is vastly closer to god and histeachings than most of the general population. The pinnacles get progressivelycloser with one golden cross high above them all. Almost saying you may live inreligious mortality but no one will ever know god. Furthermore, the supportingflying. No one should question the power or word of god. Furthermore, the buttressesshift towards the centre pinnacle, much like steps. The flying buttresses linkthe outer pinnacles with the centre tower, all pulling the highest goldencross.
The masses of long lancet windows elongate the structure as Insteadof portraying each story it becomes one long story, making it more imposing andawe-inspiring to its visitors. Additionally, it decreases the use of walls,which allows more light within the interior. One of the crowningexamples of the new take on the style is the Prague cathedral.
Prague was tobecome the centre of power of the Holy Roman Empire for Charles IV, to be crownedthe Holy Roman Emperor (Preidel, 2007). Furthermore, Prague had been promotedby the Vatican to an arch-bishopric (Frankel, 1962:161). Thus, they must have amonument to display the newfound wealth, power and divinity given to them withthe title. Gothic was used in France and Britain for this expressed purpose. Accordingly,Charles IV brought over Matthias of Arras who previously designed NarbonneCathedral, to construct the crowning jewel of his empire (Frankel, 1962:161).
While the Holy RomanEmpire took a while to build in the gothic style. Their political disagreementswith France, the birthplace of Gothic style, made this region oppose the newstyle (Watkins, 2015:185). The soon-to-be Holy Roman emperor Charles IV wasbrought up in France, witnessing the rise of Gothic architecture(Frankel, 1962:161). Thus, when he chose to settle in Prague (Frankel, 1962:161) he brought with him the gothicgenre as well as the wealth and power to impress the style upon the landscape.Once the style was established brought the style to a new height. Holy RomanEmpire England also progressed from to two more decorative versionsof the rib vault, the fan vault and the pendant vault. Both styles can be foundin Henry VII’s chapel at West Minster Abbey.
Each rib connects to its ownpendent which rises into fan vaulting. The complex vaulting appears like lace,beautiful and delicate. The huge stone ceiling appeared “to rest on nothingmore substantial than walls of glass” (Watkins 2015:180). The building appearsto defy even gravity, many must have thought something so extraordinary must beblessed by god. Henry VII would strived for this perception as his reign reliedon his divine right of kings (Foresi, 2014). Thus, he must appear to be blessedby god.The aspects of hugeGothic constructions bled down to smaller more modest buildings of the time.
Edward William Godwin (1833-83) was a Victorian architect who incorporatedgothic style in a less ornate way (Yarwood 1993:194). One of his most renownedstructures was the town hall of Congleton. He fused within a staple of Englishgothic architecture; the lancet window. Lancet windows are described as “atall, one-light, narrow window with a sharply pointed arch.
” (Yarwood 1993:415).They take the shape of a knight’s lance, giving the viewer images of chivalryand noble stories of glorious crusades and wars. A town hall is the hub ofcommunity and regulation for the betterment of all. To link these two ideas isunsurprising.As well as some of the classic aspects of gothicarchitecture already seen such as flying buttresses, Canterbury Cathedral setthe precedent for the Gothic style within England. The use of Purbeck marblewas started within this design and then became wide spread in the Englishupper-class (Watkins, 2015:168). The patterned marble pulls the viewers’attention to columns. The large main column is engulfed by many slender columnsmade of dark marble.
This pulls to viewers’ attention, like within St Denis,upward to the ceiling where they meet a classic gothic rib vault.The ‘new Frenchstyle’ rapidly spread throughout Europe. It crossed the channel when a largefire engulfed Canterbury Cathedral.
As a result, gothic architecture crossedthe channel to Britain when “master masons from England and France were invitedto give their advice on how to rebuild this prestigious metropolitan cathedral”(Watkin, 2015:168). England, much like France, needed a new form ofarchitecture to express their new-found independence and national pride.England had been ruled by Normans until this point (Thomas, 2003). King Henry II started a revolt against theNorman invaders, which he won in 1174 (Thomas, 2003).
They needed to forge a national narrative that England and the crown wasstrong, achieving this through art, music and architecture. William of Sens waschosen to erect his gothic structure without disturbing the remaining Normanpieces (Frankl,1962:49). By lengthening the choir and constructing a new gothicambulatory while keeping the new ambulatory (Frankl,1962:49),he created a lengthy cathedral unusual in Britain at the time. Thus, it appearslike a progression through the old to the new. The new columns added wereinspired by the old pillars. The new kept the same width as the old (Watkins,2015:168). This is unusual of gothic architecture, who favour much thinnerpillars to increase the flow of light into the interior.
Cleverly, he extendedthe pillars to tower over the old, symbolizing a progression to a brightfuture, yet keeping aspects of the old. Early English gothic was much cleanerand simplified from the complex and overbearing French take on the style. England Abbots ideas on light and space were very influential to thegothic period (Watkins, 2015:150). He believed that light possessed a divinity (Frankl, 1962:30). Thus, he picked architectural ideasthat would allow for a bright space. Achieved with larger windows and thinnerminimal walls (Watkins, 2015:150), the space became lighter and open. He used vaststain glass windows to create a radiant interior (Watkins, 2015:151).
Consequently, it marked a break with the Romanesque period, which commonlyfavoured smaller rounder windows. The large windows were supported by ribbedvaulting. Ribbed vaulting sections off space without the use of physical walls (Watkins,2015:150). Each arch divide space, while simultaneously linking it with thenext when the ribs of the arches intersect. This creates a flow of space aidedby the slimmed walls and columns (Watkins, 2015:150), allowing each room to become apart of the next. The ribbed arches gave their shape to the windows. Theycreated long and pointed arches, portraying the interior. The windows arepointed at the top, possibly inspired by Islamic architecture seen during thecatholic expansion.
The steep top draws the eyes to its pinnacle. Everythingabout the interior and exterior encourages the viewer to look skyward, toweringto the heavens not just in physical height but in direction of lines (Watkins,2015:149). Thus, connecting the viewer to god. This unity was the foundation ofgothic architecture. The arches, rib vaults and buttresses “draws the storeysinto unity and overcomes the Romanesque principle of considering each storey asa separate entity” (Frankl, 1962:57)The façade has verydefined sections, marked out by window placement and huge vertical buttressesseparating the three entrances. Furthermore, the flying buttresses had anaesthetic purpose as well as a structural (Grodecki, 1979).
They reflected theboundaries of each interior ribbed vault, while supporting the weight of it.The ribs of the vault add extra support to the structure. The window archesalso portray the width of each vault section. The dissection of the building reflects theuse of space within.
This idea was replicated throughout the gothic period.Abbot Sugar was oneof the most influential and foremost patrons of gothic architecture (Grodecki 1979:29).He funded a pioneering renovation of the desolate church Abbey of St-Dennis in1138 (Watkins, 2015:150),meant to celebrate new found French national pride and attempt to mark Franceas the new hub of continental European Christendom. The crusades were expandingand protect the Catholic empire inspired a celebration of faith. Thisinspiration bled into the art, music and architecture of the period. Origins Art has always been used to record and express the cultureand emotions of the people. Architecture is one of these forms of art.
Theelements that encompassed gothic architecture had been used prior to its birth.It was only as these elements were required to illustrate and solidify the newphilosophy, spiritual beliefs and national identity of France at the time, thatthey were brought to the forefront. France was experiencing a time of expansioninitiated when Phillip II Augustus inherited the throne.
During his reignFrance became the most powerful monarchy in continental Europe. This, alongsidethe France’s involvement in crusades in the East for Catholicism, created arenewed national pride reflected by the gothic period. Introduction