I understand that a massacre is a merciless killing of people or animals. Also I understand that a battle is an organised fight two or more different armed fighters.
In source C, on the assessment sheet, says that Black Kettle, who is chief of the Cheyenne tribe, ran from his lodge shouting at the white soldiers, who then started shooting cannonballs and rifle fire on the camp, on 29th November 1864. The Indian women and children were hiding in hollows or pits around the camp. This source came from Ralph. K. Andrist.
Black Kettle (?? – 1868)
In source A, Robert Bent, a half-cast Cheyenne, who was actually there, said “They sent a little girl about six years old with a white flag on a stick.” It means that the Indians wanted to surrender but the white soldiers ignored the white flag and kept on shooting, the little girl was shot and killed.
In source G, in the American textbook, says that the children were on their knees begging for their lives but got their brains beaten out like dogs.
In source I, which was a painting; painted by Robert Lindreux, he painted it in 1936. The painting shows that the white settlers were surrounding Black Kettle’s camp, the settlers are firing at the Indians. There is the American flag already put up and just beneath it there is the white flag, which means ‘I surrender’ or ‘we surrender’.
In the textbook, sources J and K don’t show that it was a massacre.
Also I understand that a battle is an organised fight two or more different armed fighters.
In source E, it says a few things that say it was a battle. The first is that the Indian braves had weapons and they were attempting to make stands in hollows or pits in the creek bank, protecting the women and children. The second is that few of the Cheyenne had arms or any opportunity to obtain them; these means that some Cheyenne took a risk of going back to their tipis and grab their weapons to protect them. The third and final fact of the source is the same one that I explained for the massacre section, it is, cannon and rifle firing swept through the camp from the US soldiers side. It means that the soldiers were shooting the Indians, while the Indians were trying to fight back.
Sources F and G say nothing else about a battle but it does say something about a massacre.
In source H, was written by Colonel Chivington straight after the attack. He says that there were “nine-hundred to a thousand warriors on the Indian side and between four-hundred to five hundred all died nobly.” This means that the Indians fought back and he is saying that they all died with honour.
In source I, the painting shows that the Indians have got guns and started fighting the US soldiers. The US soldiers haven’t got the camp totally surrounded; they just left half of it clear for the Indians to get away. The women and children are running in the clear direction. The flags are already up, this shows that the Indians knew the attack was coming but didn’t know when.
In source J, it came from the Denver news; it is about the Sand creek massacre. Denver is in the state of Colorado. The source says, “All did what was expected of them. Colorado soldiers have again covered themselves with glory.” It means that the soldiers had won the battle and are glad that they won it.
Source K came from Major Anthony a US soldier, who was present at the massacre. He explains that the Indians had shown more bravery than he has seen. This means that he has seen the Indians being brave like them, by showing that the White settlers believe in by facing the enemy. The Indians believe that running away from the enemy means that they would live to fight another day.
I think that my opinion of this massacre means that this has shown that it was a battle and not a massacre, because most of the sources show it was a battle. These sources made me think was it a battle or a massacre. I looked at all the sources that I have shown that it was a battle or a massacre. I thought that from these first facts of the sources, that it had shown it was a massacre. The people who wrote these sources and some painted them believed it was a massacre.