The the end of the short-lived Korean Empire

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Last updated: July 24, 2019

 The present essay is about the Koreans in Japan, butnot in general sense, if not in order to attend the guidelines, the essay willbe about the term “?????”,theterm that in the next paragraph, it will establish, which is his nature andobjective of this essay.  The Korean People currently constitute the secondlargest ethnic minority in Japan following Chinese, the majority of Koreans inJapan are Zainichi Koreans (?????),whoare the permanent ethnic Korean residents of Japan, the term “?????”, it is not refersat all population of Koreans in japan, if not only the Korean residents ofJapan who trace their roots to Koreaunder Japanese rule (The Korea under Japanese rule began with the end of the short-livedKorean Empire in 1910 and ended at the conclusion of World War II in 1945,Japanese rule of Korea was the outcome process that began with the Japan-KoreaTreaty of 1876.), distinguishing them from later wave ofKorean migrants who came mostly in the 1980`s, and from pre-modern immigrantsdating back to antiquity. The term refers in specific sense to almost always,by ethnic Japanese and ethnic Koreans alike, to a population of colonial-eramigrants from the Korean peninsula that settled in the Japanese archipelago andtheir descendants. (Lie 2008, 8)Before to start, we should establish the backgroundrespect the history between the Japanese and the japanese-korean, ontologicallyspeaking, Zainichi should somehow not exist.

Reality is more complicated,confusing, confounding. Consider only the basic facts of nationality and name. Duringthe colonial period (1910 –1945), Koreans living on both the Japanese archipelagoand the Korean peninsula were Japanese imperial subjects.

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In spite of colonialracism, Japanese law and official discourse decreed ethnic, Koreans as Japanesenationals and the Emperor’s children. The 1952 San Francisco Peace Treatyrestored Japanese sovereignty but rescinded Japanese citizenship for ethnicKoreans remaining in Japan. (Lie 2008, 10)Since the end of the war in Korea (1953) until recenttimes, we can see the different terms that the Japanese people have used torefer the Japanese-Korean, with the political division in the peninsula ofKorea, it was become more difficult refer in one way or in other to thissegment, terms as ???,to refer the north Korean people, ??? for Koreansaffiliated with North Korea, ????????in the 1950`s this term reflected in part the population`s overwhelmingallegiance to North Korea, ??? sometimes called “republic”,??to South Koreans, the normative nomenclature in the 1970s and 1980s for thetotality of ethnic Koreans in Japan was the rather cumbersome ?????,??,???, (residentSouth Koreans and North Koreans in Japan) though those strongly allied with oneof the two Koreas would prefer either????????or  ????????, when NHK aired acourse on the Korean language in 1984, it avoided the two terms and insteadopted for han’gul (chung 2010, 40), in the 80`s some people used the term inEnglish Korean to neutralize the split between the two Koreas. The ideology ofJapanese cultural and ethnic homogeneity had effectively barred theplausibility in Japan of the term Korean Japanese.

How we can see the term used to refer at this segmentof population have been very different in the past, however, my essay is notabout the history of this term or about the Japanese-Korean in japan throughthe history, if not, it is about the current situation of this segment of populationin Japan and his Social Conditions and Legal Conditions in the present, so withthis established is the moment to make one understanding and conscious aboutthis segment of population.    MultiethnicJapan; Despite the ubiquity of ethnic Koreans in postwarJapanese life, many Japanese almost instinctively denied their legitimacy andat times their very presence. Yet this persistent repression of ethnicexistence faces the recalcitrant reality of a multiethnic Japan. (Lie 2008, 20)If we see the history of japan trough the time, sincethe modern Japanese state conquered Hokkaido and its indigenous Ainu, in the1870 Ryukyu or Okinawa, Qing and Tokugawa, it was absorbed for Japanese Empire,later Taiwan 1895, also annexed Korea, Manchuria and other parts of China, notonly the territory of Japan expand if not the japan as country becameirreducibly in one multiethnic country.KoreanPopulation in Japan; historically the Koreans in japan hadbeen discriminated and suffered racism, since the Meiji Restauration onlyseveral thousand of Koreans were in the main Japanese islands, after that in1920`s the next cause of more presence of Korean in Japan was the laborShortage, in this period usually referred to the Korean population how inlandor naichi, of course the majority of Korean in the prewar in Japan werefarmers, after that in the wartimes, the ethnic Koreans worked in factories andmines, also the women into ammunition, textile and other factories, during thewar 239,000 Koreans suffered  injuriesand death, and during the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima 30,000 ethnicKoreans died, of course the ethnic Koreans were not quiet and calm people, ifnot there are in the history numerous cases of uprising and struggle againstthe Japanese.With these different points, we have tried gave abrief explanation about which is the history between the Japanese and theethnic Koreans, but now we need see the current situation or at least in thelast century, what is the situation of the????? in japan now.OldGeneration Vs New Generation; what is the truesituation now in japan respect the ?????,it is true that this question only belongs to old generations, or for otherside the boom of Korean culture in japan through the media, and theinter-marriage between resident Koreans and native Japanese is now very common,and it is commonly said that the youngest Japanese do not really care if theirprospective spouse is a ?????.If opposition comes at all it is usually from an older generation who stillfeel the legacy and history.

There are still some historical issues that refuseto go away and these remain controversial issue.SocialCondition; ?????arecustomarily distinguished from newcomers by both Japanese society and theJapanese state. One may wonder why old-comers who have been in Japan for morethan 50 years are still called “temporary” residents.  This term reflectsthe desire of many Koreans to someday return to their mother country, especiallyafter World War II, when the Allied Powers defeated Japan, liberated Koreans inJapan had a strong desire to go back to Korea.  However, those ambitionsfaded over time.

  ?????,now in their fourth generation, are permanent residents of Japan, and many ofthem no longer have a desire to go back.  Despite this, the term hassurvived, reflecting the reality of institutional discrimination by theJapanese state and Japanese society. (Suzuki 2005, 2)LegalCondition; The nationality of first generation?????, changed severaltimes over a relatively short period of time.

  First, prior to Japan’scolonization of Korea, all people lived on the Korean peninsula shared Koreannationality.  When Korea became part of Japan in 1910, all Koreans becamesubjects of the Japanese emperor.  In 1952, when the San Francisco PeaceTreaty took effect, ?????lost their Japanese nationality, and those who could not or did not go back tothe Korean peninsula became stateless.  As foreigners, they were allowedto apply for citizenship via the naturalization process.  However, due towidespread discrimination against Koreans in Japan, this has proven verydifficult for many?????. Despite stringent naturalization criteria for?????, the number of naturalized?????, has graduallyincreased since the 1990s. (Chung 2010, 65)Non-naturalized?????did not have a nationality until at least 1965 when Japan and South Koreanormalized diplomatic relations.

  ?????,who pledged political allegiance to South Korea, regardless of theirgeographical origins in the North or South, obtained South Koreannationality.  ?????who have geographical origins in the North and have neither pledged allegianceto the South nor have not yet become naturalized Japanese citizens have nonationality, since the Japanese government has yet to establish diplomaticrelations with North Korea.  These people, though they do not have a legalnationality, consider themselves to be overseas North Koreans.  Currently,both North and South?????have gained legal status as special permanent residents of Japan, which wasalso a product of the Japan-ROK diplomatic agreement (Japan – Republic of KoreaRelations).Since establishing diplomatic relations with SouthKorea in 1965, the Japanese government has taken some steps to furtherintegrate????? into Japanesepolitical and social life.  In the late 1970s, the Japanese governmentincreased????? access to socialsecurity benefits, and in 1982, the government granted permanent residentstatus to those Koreans (and their children) who had established residence inJapan before the end of World War II.

  Nearly a decade later, thegovernment extended this right to third generation Koreans in Japan.  Mostrecently, in 1993, the government halted the practice of fingerprinting Koreansand other permanent residents during alien registration procedures. (Suzuki2005, 3)  Sourcesof Identity Problems; we can see that the identity problemsinside of the ????? are present, butthe if we see through the history since 1952 until the present many things aboutthis search of identity for the ?????have changed, the ideas of the first and second generation in comparison thatthe fourth and fifth generation there are very different and antagonist, thefirst and second generation considered that they had been strongly tied totheir homeland, but what happen with the change of the ideas since the firstgeneration until the most recent generation, we can attribute this change someevents happened in the history, the first change occurred during the Cold War,when the relationship became entangled in the international stage with theseparation of the Korean peninsula into North and South, the second changeoccurred with the establishement of the organizations as Soren in 1945, isassociated with the North and Mindan, formed in 1946, is closely tied to theSouth. (Htun, Tin Tin 2012, 15)These two organizations began s for Koreans living inJapan quickly became political outlets for the two competing regimes on theKorean peninsula.  These organizationsalso have a social function as providers of social capital among members(financial support, ethnic schools, assistance in finding jobs, etc.) and assuppressors of assimilation into Japanese society.

   The two organizations until very recently, both Sorenand Mindan have assumed a rigid anti-assimilationist stance, emphasizing that ?????identify asoverseas Koreans above all else. Maybe the first generation of Koreanconsidered the naturalization to be taboo and betrayal of one´s Korean heritagebut the new generations have become so “Japanized” that they are no longerinterested in remote “homeland” politics.   Challenges in the Future; in lackingJapanese citizenship ?????arefaced with numerouschallenges, such as receiving social welfare benefits,obtaining employment, and encountering hate speech. The unemployment levelsamong ?????is about doublethat of the Japanese national average, some believe that the unemployment rateis higher because ethnic Koreans switch jobs frequently, typically working inthe service industry. Other of the challenges that the ????? arealso not allowed to hold government positions that exercise public power ordecision-making on behalf of the public.

The government and nationalistic groups take on thestance that individuals with the authority to influence the public and userevenue collected from the public should be the citizens. However, a counterargumentis that perhaps citizenship should not the be-all end-all of defining who is oris not Japanese, or even who is a good candidate for the position in question.A lack of legal citizenship because of one’s ethnicity does not completelyjustify preventing perhaps well-qualified individuals to take leadership positions,or even jobs that may not have a connection or relation to one’s citizenship. Furthermore,special permanent residents also pay taxes to the government that supports theselocal governmental institutions. ?????had their nationality arbitrarily stripped from them after the war, and it hasbeen a struggle to obtain Japanese citizenship without giving up their ethnicdiversity and identity.

Most were born in Japan, have lived in the country fortheir entire lives, pay taxes, speak Japanese, and understand Japanese culture.For other side the ?????alsoare targets of hate speech from ultra-right wing, ultra-nationalistic Japanesegroups such as the Zaitokukai and the Action Conservative Movement. While thistype of hate speech affects ?????,their encounters of such protests would typically be sporadic events.Meanwhile, most ?????face subtle andindirect micro aggression discrimination on a more frequent basis.

Microaggressions are generalized and damaging insults based on stereotypes,attitudes, or actions. (Young-min Cho 2016, 30)Conclusion;morethan tried create or promote a campaign for better understanding aboutminorities´ histories and rights among the public to grow tolerance andacceptance, as many theorists argued, it is necessary the establishment of thethree principles basic that are minimum tolerance, mutual solidarity and humanequivalence, with this and one national law about minorities, will be enough tostep by step the Japanese society will be more open and tolerant.                                                                                                          ReferencesChung,Erin Aeran. “Immigration and Citizenship in Japan.” Immigration and Citizenshipin Japan, 2010, doi:10.1017/cbo9780511711855.

001 Htun,Tin Tin. “Social identities of minority others in Japan: listening to thenarratives of Ainu, Buraku and Zainichi Koreans.” Japan Forum, vol. 24, no. 1,June 2012, pp. 1–22., doi:10.

1080/09555803.2011.637635. KazukoSuzuki. “Koreans in Japan (Zainichi Koreans).

” ExEAS – Teaching Materials andResources, Department of Sociology Texas A University, 2005, www.columbia.edu/cu/weai/exeas/resources/koreans-in-japan.

html. Lie,John. Zainichi (Koreans in Japan): diasporic nationalism and postcolonialidentity. 1st ed., University of California Press, 2008.Young-MingCho.

Koreans in Japan: a Struggle for acceptance. Chicago Unbond –International Inmersion Program Papers, Department of Law Chicago University,2016, https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.co.jp/=1=1026=international_immersion_program_papers.

   

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