The Colombian Peace Process TheColombian conflict is started in the 1960’s between the Colombian Governmentsand Revolutionary armed forces of Colombia; the People Army are fighting for thepoor people rights and the Colombian government is fighting for the stabilityand for the interest of the Colombian citizens. 220,000 people have killed inthe conflict between 1958 and 2013, more than five millions pushed away fromtheir homes and 45000 children killed. Colombia had a long history of repressionof peasants and inequality, the disadvantage of poor farmers is compounded by thelack of agricultural reform, the peasants were slaves of the rich land ownersof the coffee haciendas.
Here we can seethe Colombian Conflict Timeline· 1964-1966:the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) is founded by a group of communistsand peasants, later they become the core of the FARC, after they met withMarulanda and guerrilla leaders to formally create the FARC, they called forland reforms and the FARC also started to set up training camps and socialservices for the poor people.· 1970:FARC begins financing its movement through drug trafficking and kidnapping forransom, they were targeting wealthy landowners. To pay for the social servicesand its militant camps.
· 1982:the FARC they started to talk about peace with the Colombian presidentBelisario Betancur, after they changed their name to be “People Army” and· 1986:Political party founded by the FARC members called “The Patriotic Union”, theygained a series of elections in the government, but the leaders are targeted bythe army and drug dealers, and another wave of violence began, estimating thathundreds or maybe thousands were killed.· 1997:The United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia is founded, they have killedthousands, same year, the United States state department announced that FARC,the ELN and AUC terrorist groups.· 1999:FARC and Bogota war began to reach new peak, 3000 people were kidnaped, andprotesting began in all the cities. The government began to talk about peace tocontain the situation.· 2000:United States begin a program that assassinates the rebel leaders.· 2000’s:the new President Alvaro Uribe started a new military campaign against thePeople Army and the United states supported his campaign, the people army lostmore than 8000 fighters over few years.
· 2012-2014:The FARC declares an end of kidnappings, and they resume talk about the peaceprocess. InSeptember 2012, the Government of President Juan Manual Santos and theRevolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia started the Colombian peace process.They announced a final agreement to end the conflict. In November 2012 inHavana, Cuba, They began formal peace agreement, they have set four key topics tosign the final document of the agreement and they also set a deadline for itwhich is 23th of March, 2016. The four points are:· Landreform: to develop the economic and social life in rural areas and to offer a landfor poor farmers· Thepolitical participation of the rebels· Eliminateall the illicit drug production· Transitionaljustice: amnesty for combatants, except those who have committed the mostserious crimesAreferendum for the people after the final deal to ratify the deal on 2ndof October 2016, which was unsuccessful after the people voted 50.2% againstthe agreement and 49.8% voted for the agreement.
Afterward the two sides had tosign a revised deal on 24th of November 2016, they sent it to thecongress instead of conducting another referendum. Houses of Congress ratified the amended peace agreement to end theconflict.