The Colombian Peace Process
Colombian conflict is started in the 1960’s between the Colombian Governments
and Revolutionary armed forces of Colombia; the People Army are fighting for the
poor people rights and the Colombian government is fighting for the stability
and for the interest of the Colombian citizens. 220,000 people have killed in
the conflict between 1958 and 2013, more than five millions pushed away from
their homes and 45000 children killed. Colombia had a long history of repression
of peasants and inequality, the disadvantage of poor farmers is compounded by the
lack of agricultural reform, the peasants were slaves of the rich land owners
of the coffee haciendas.
Here we can see
the Colombian Conflict Timeline
the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) is founded by a group of communists
and peasants, later they become the core of the FARC, after they met with
Marulanda and guerrilla leaders to formally create the FARC, they called for
land reforms and the FARC also started to set up training camps and social
services for the poor people.
FARC begins financing its movement through drug trafficking and kidnapping for
ransom, they were targeting wealthy landowners. To pay for the social services
and its militant camps.
the FARC they started to talk about peace with the Colombian president
Belisario Betancur, after they changed their name to be “People Army” and
Political party founded by the FARC members called “The Patriotic Union”, they
gained a series of elections in the government, but the leaders are targeted by
the army and drug dealers, and another wave of violence began, estimating that
hundreds or maybe thousands were killed.
The United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia is founded, they have killed
thousands, same year, the United States state department announced that FARC,
the ELN and AUC terrorist groups.
FARC and Bogota war began to reach new peak, 3000 people were kidnaped, and
protesting began in all the cities. The government began to talk about peace to
contain the situation.
United States begin a program that assassinates the rebel leaders.
the new President Alvaro Uribe started a new military campaign against the
People Army and the United states supported his campaign, the people army lost
more than 8000 fighters over few years.
The FARC declares an end of kidnappings, and they resume talk about the peace
September 2012, the Government of President Juan Manual Santos and the
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia started the Colombian peace process.
They announced a final agreement to end the conflict. In November 2012 in
Havana, Cuba, They began formal peace agreement, they have set four key topics to
sign the final document of the agreement and they also set a deadline for it
which is 23th of March, 2016. The four points are:
reform: to develop the economic and social life in rural areas and to offer a land
for poor farmers
political participation of the rebels
all the illicit drug production
justice: amnesty for combatants, except those who have committed the most
referendum for the people after the final deal to ratify the deal on 2nd
of October 2016, which was unsuccessful after the people voted 50.2% against
the agreement and 49.8% voted for the agreement. Afterward the two sides had to
sign a revised deal on 24th of November 2016, they sent it to the
congress instead of conducting another referendum. Houses of Congress ratified the amended peace agreement to end the